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The replication mechanism depends on the viral genome. DNA viruses usually use host cell proteins and enzymes to make additional DNA that is used to copy the genome or be transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA), which is then used in protein synthesis. RNA viruses, such as the influenza virus, usually use the RNA core as a template for synthesis of viral genomic RNA and mRNA. The viral mRNA is translated into viral enzymes and capsid proteins to assemble new virions ( [link] ). Of course, there are exceptions to this pattern. If a host cell does not provide the enzymes necessary for viral replication, viral genes supply the information to direct synthesis of the missing proteins. Retroviruses, such as HIV, have an RNA genome that must be reverse transcribed to make DNA, which then is inserted into the host’s DNA. To convert RNA into DNA, retroviruses contain genes that encode the virus-specific enzyme reverse transcriptase that transcribes an RNA template to DNA. The fact that HIV produces some of its own enzymes, which are not found in the host, has allowed researchers to develop drugs that inhibit these enzymes. These drugs, including the reverse transcriptase inhibitor AZT, inhibit HIV replication by reducing the activity of the enzyme without affecting the host’s metabolism.

The last stage of viral replication is the release of the new virions into the host organism, where they are able to infect adjacent cells and repeat the replication cycle. Some viruses are released when the host cell dies and other viruses can leave infected cells by budding through the membrane without directly killing the cell.

Art connection

The illustration shows the steps of an influenza virus infection. In step 1, influenza virus becomes attached to a receptor on a target epithelial cell. In step 2, the cell engulfs the virus by endocytosis, and the virus becomes encased in the cell’s plasma membrane. In step 3, the membrane dissolves, and the viral contents are released into the cytoplasm. Viral mRNA enters the nucleus, where it is replicated by viral RNA polymerase. In step 4, viral mRNA exits to the cytoplasm, where it is used to make viral proteins. In step 5, new viral particles are released into the extracellular fluid. The cell, which is not killed in the process, continues to make new virus.
In influenza virus infection, glycoproteins attach to a host epithelial cell. As a result, the virus is engulfed. RNA and proteins are made and assembled into new virions.

Influenza virus is packaged in a viral envelope, which fuses with the plasma membrane. This way, the virus can exit the host cell without killing it. What advantage does the virus gain by keeping the host cell alive?

Concept in action

Click through this tutorial on viruses to identify structures, modes of transmission, replication, and more.

Viruses and disease

Viruses cause a variety of diseases in animals, including humans, ranging from the common cold to potentially fatal illnesses like meningitis ( [link] ). These diseases can be treated by antiviral drugs or by vaccines, but some viruses, such as HIV, are capable of avoiding the immune response and mutating so as to become resistant to antiviral drugs.

The illustration shows an overview of human viral diseases. Viruses that cause encephalitis or meningitis, or inflammation of the brain and surrounding tissues, include measles, arbovirus, rabies, JC virus, and LCM virus. The common cold is caused by rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus. Eye infections are caused by herpesvirus, adenovirus, and cytomegalovirus. Pharyngitis, or inflammation of the pharynx, is caused by adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus. Parotitis, or inflammation of the parotid glands, is caused by mumps virus. Gingivostomatitis, or inflammation of the oral mucosa, is caused by herpes simplex type I virus. Pneumonia is caused by influenza virus types A and B, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and SARS coronavirus. Cardiovascular problems are caused by coxsackie B virus. Hepatitis is caused by hepatitis virus types A, B, C, D, and E. Myelitis is caused by poliovirus and HLTV-1. Skin infections are caused by varicella-zoster virus, human herpesvirus 6, smallpox, molluscum contagiosum, human papillomavirus, parvovirus B19, rubella, measles, and coxsackie A virus. Gastroenteritis, or digestive disease, is caused by adenovirus, rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and coronavirus. Sexually transmitted diseases are caused by herpes simplex type 2, human papillomavirus, and HIV. Pancreatitis B is caused by coxsackie B virus.
Viruses are the cause of dozens of ailments in humans, ranging from mild illnesses to serious diseases. (credit: modification of work by Mikael Häggström)

Vaccines for prevention

While we do have limited numbers of effective antiviral drugs, such as those used to treat HIV and influenza, the primary method of controlling viral disease is by vaccination, which is intended to prevent outbreaks by building immunity to a virus or virus family. A vaccine    may be prepared using weakened live viruses, killed viruses, or molecular subunits of the virus. In general, live viruses lead to better immunity, but have the possibility of causing disease at some low frequency. Killed viral vaccine and the subunit viruses are both incapable of causing disease, but in general lead to less effective or long-lasting immunity.

Questions & Answers

Compared to separate sexes and assuming self-fertilizing is not possible, what might be one advantage and one disadvantage to hermaphroditism?
Gift Reply
why are the laws of thermodynamics considered laws of nature and not scientific theories
Yolonda Reply
archea were given their own separate domain because they are?
Yolonda
which of the following is a basic component of all of the others?
Yolonda
which of the following organization levels is the least inclusive
Yolonda
which cell feature is absent in bacterial cells
Yolonda
which metric movies the base unit of measurement by one thousandth (0.001)?
Yolonda
What is biology?
Blessing Reply
List the branches of biology
Blessing
List the branches of biology
Blessing
List the branches of biology
Blessing
List the branches of biology
Blessing
must all prokaryotic cells posses a cell wall?
chris Reply
what is biology?
Cathy Reply
biology is basically the study of life
Robert
that's true
Tonia
it's the study of living things
Tonia
What is a celiac disease
Falase Reply
distinguish between properties and characteristics
Elee Reply
what are organelles
Elee
organelles are substances that makes up a cell
chris
what is biology
Prevail Reply
biology is science that studies life
Elee
it's the study of living and non living things
now that we have an estimate for the diameter of the cell.what estimate can we make about the volume of the cell?
faxhood Reply
why too much insulin result in low blood sugar
Leri Reply
For example, too much exercise can cost you to lose to much weight. Too much insulin will pull to much sugar out of your systemic system into your cells.
Eric
difference between DNA and RNA
Eyitayo Reply
DNA is deoxyribonuclaic acid. Deoxy refers to a lack of oxygen. The Ribose moity is missing an OH group. I think it is missing from the second C of the ring. RNA is ribonucleic acid. DNA has our genetic code in on it. RNA is translated from DNA and carries the blue print for protein synthesis.
Eric
The OH group on RNA prevents it from being reactive. But it is very unstable though. Would you want such a power tool floating around in your body, no. And you have three types of RNA: mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. Please let me know it this helped?😄
Eric
o
Browse
Eric answered this question perfectly
what determines the aeration level in the soil
Shola Reply
what is homeostasis?
Sarita Reply
It means balance in a biological system.
Eric
What is biology
Don Reply
Biology z the study of life
GOLDEN
what's biology
buran
biology is the study of living nd none living organism
Chinaza
Biology is the study of life
Quadri
yes Sir
Said
what's cell biology
Prince
biology is the study of life
Raheal
Biology is a science subject that deals with the study of living things and how they interact with there environment
chris
what is asexual reproduction,?
Awoi Reply
A type of reproduction which does not involve the fusion of gametes or a change in the number of chromosomes
Serena
Reproduction without sex... In which form a single organism or cell makes a copy of itself.
Serena
Please explain the concept of mitosis and meiosis
Serena
I guess you could use it for study buddies and brushing up on what you need to
Serena
what is mitosis
Klp
Asexual reproduction?
Serena
why pepsin and trypsin released in active form?
Yacqub
mitosis is the type cell division in which two daughter cells have same no. of chormosomes
syed
Hi
Don
chromosome number remains the same in mitosis
mc
Ello
Henry
Hii
Nikky
Yrr help me.
Nikky
Physical chemistry..... Koi h jo mujhe physical chem ki notes send kr ske
Nikky
what is asexual reproduction
Targbe

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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/1.9
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