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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the form and function of a neuron
  • Describe the basic parts and functions of the central nervous system
  • Describe the basic parts and functions of the peripheral nervous system

As you read this, your nervous system is performing several functions simultaneously. The visual system is processing what is seen on the page; the motor system controls your eye movements and the turn of the pages (or click of the mouse); the prefrontal cortex maintains attention. Even fundamental functions, like breathing and regulation of body temperature, are controlled by the nervous system. The nervous system is one of two systems that exert control over all the organ systems of the body; the other is the endocrine system. The nervous system’s control is much more specific and rapid than the hormonal system. It communicates signals through cells and the tiny gaps between them rather than through the circulatory system as in the endocrine system. It uses a combination of chemical and electrochemical signals, rather than purely chemical signals used by the endocrine system to cover long distances quickly. The nervous system acquires information from sensory organs, processes it and then may initiate a response either through motor function, leading to movement, or in a change in the organism’s physiological state.

Nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom vary in structure and complexity. Some organisms, like sea sponges, lack a true nervous system. Others, like jellyfish, lack a true brain and instead have a system of separate but connected nerve cells (neurons) called a “nerve net.” Flatworms have both a central nervous system (CNS), made up of a ganglion (clusters of connected neurons) and two nerve cords, and a peripheral nervous system (PNS) containing a system of nerves that extend throughout the body. The insect nervous system is more complex but also fairly decentralized. It contains a brain, ventral nerve cord, and ganglia. These ganglia can control movements and behaviors without input from the brain.

Compared to invertebrates, vertebrate nervous systems are more complex, centralized, and specialized. While there is great diversity among different vertebrate nervous systems, they all share a basic structure: a CNS that contains a brain and spinal cord and a PNS made up of peripheral sensory and motor nerves. One interesting difference between the nervous systems of invertebrates and vertebrates is that the nerve cords of many invertebrates are located ventrally (toward the stomach) whereas the vertebrate spinal cords are located dorsally (toward the back). There is debate among evolutionary biologists as to whether these different nervous system plans evolved separately or whether the invertebrate body plan arrangement somehow “flipped” during the evolution of vertebrates.

The nervous system is made up of neurons , specialized cells that can receive and transmit chemical or electrical signals, and glia    , cells that provide support functions for the neurons. There is great diversity in the types of neurons and glia that are present in different parts of the nervous system.

Questions & Answers

what is osmosis
Aon Reply
movement of water molecule from higher to lower concentration through a semipereable membrene.
Dr
what of in the case of solute
Aon
osmosis is the movement of molecules from higher concentration region to lower concentration region through semi-permeable membrane.
Broad
in case of solute means that water moves from the region with lower solutes to the region with higher solute. so it is vice versa to water.
Broad
what are the hydrophilic and hydrophobic region of the plasma membrane?
Samuel Reply
hydrophilic in other word it called water loving and hydrophobic region other word is region that does not contact with water in the plasma membrane.
Broad
recognizing living things
Emmanuel Reply
Species A has 12 pairs of chromosomes and Species B has 11 pairs of chromosomes. Explain what occurs during mitosis and during meiosis in the hybrid that allows normal development and growth from zygote to adult, but causes the adults to be sterile.
Christina Reply
what is the origin of angiosperms?
Broad
unknown group of gymnosperms of triassic period.
Aditi
ouky but what about the concept of monophyletic and polyphyletic? where angiosperms is between that two concept?
Broad
Why does water move through a membrane?
Christina Reply
How many bones are in the human skeleton
Treasure Reply
203
Oyeleke
procce of digestion of proteins a long human alimentarycanal
Carson Reply
what are the properties of lipids?
Isiah Reply
They are: Fatty acids, fats, oils, waxes, phospholipid, glycolipids, steroids and some vitamins
Rachel
explain why a fresh water fish excrete ammonia
Leonard Reply
plz answer my question
Leonard
sorry i meant it has a nucleous unlike plant cells lol
Lailah
Ammonia is the end product of protein catabolism and is stored in the body of the fish in high concentrations relative to basal excretion rates. Ammonia, if allowed to accumulate, is toxic and is converted to less toxic compounds or excreted
Rachel
What are eukaryotic cells?
Nwosueke Reply
cell with no nucleous so not a plant cell
Lailah
eukaryotic cells are membrane bound organelles that have a membrane bound nucleus
ojeen
where does the cell get energy for active transport processes?
A'Kaysion Reply
IDK maybe glucose
Lailah
what is synapsis
Adepoju Reply
ability of homology genome to pair
Broad
how many turns are required to make a molecule of sucrose in Calvin cycle
Amina Reply
why Calvin cycle occurs in stroma
Amina
why do humans enhale oxygen and exhale carbondioxide?
Maryam Reply
why do humans enhale oxygen and exhale carbondioxide? For the purpose of breaking down the food
dil
what is allele
uzoka Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/1.9
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