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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Explain why angiosperms are the dominant form of plant life in most terrestrial ecosystems
  • Describe the main parts of a flower and their purpose
  • Detail the life cycle of an angiosperm
  • Discuss the two main groups of flowering plants

From their humble and still obscure beginning during the early Jurassic period, the angiosperms—or flowering plants—have evolved to dominate most terrestrial ecosystems ( [link] ). With more than 250,000 species, the angiosperm phylum (Anthophyta) is second only to insects in terms of diversification.

 Photo shows a winding pathway bordered by flowers in a variety of colors and shapes.
These flowers grow in a botanical garden border in Bellevue, WA. Flowering plants dominate terrestrial landscapes. The vivid colors of flowers are an adaptation to pollination by animals such as insects and birds. (credit: Myriam Feldman)

The success of angiosperms is due to two novel reproductive structures: flowers and fruit. The function of the flower is to ensure pollination. Flowers also provide protection for the ovule and developing embryo inside a receptacle. The function of the fruit is seed dispersal. They also protect the developing seed. Different fruit structures or tissues on fruit—such as sweet flesh, wings, parachutes, or spines that grab—reflect the dispersal strategies that help spread seeds.

Flowers

Flowers are modified leaves, or sporophylls, organized around a central stalk. Although they vary greatly in appearance, all flowers contain the same structures: sepals, petals, carpels, and stamens. The peduncle attaches the flower to the plant. A whorl of sepals (collectively called the calyx    ) is located at the base of the peduncle and encloses the unopened floral bud. Sepals are usually photosynthetic organs, although there are some exceptions. For example, the corolla in lilies and tulips consists of three sepals and three petals that look virtually identical. Petals , collectively the corolla    , are located inside the whorl of sepals and often display vivid colors to attract pollinators. Flowers pollinated by wind are usually small, feathery, and visually inconspicuous. Sepals and petals together form the perianth    . The sexual organs (carpels and stamens) are located at the center of the flower.

As illustrated in [link] , styles, stigmas, and ovules constitute the female organ: the gynoecium    or carpel    . Flower structure is very diverse, and carpels may be singular, multiple, or fused. Multiple fused carpels comprise a pistil    . The megaspores and the female gametophytes are produced and protected by the thick tissues of the carpel. A long, thin structure called a style    leads from the sticky stigma    , where pollen is deposited, to the ovary    , enclosed in the carpel. The ovary houses one or more ovules, each of which will develop into a seed upon fertilization. The male reproductive organs, the stamens (collectively called the androecium), surround the central carpel. Stamens are composed of a thin stalk called a filament    and a sac-like structure called the anther. The filament supports the anther    , where the microspores are produced by meiosis and develop into pollen grains.

Questions & Answers

what is the protein found in the blood?
Tobias Reply
globin
Joelia
Globin
globulins
EZRA
globulins
SASMITA
what is parasitic movement
Emmanuel Reply
Parasitic movement is a problem for all of us. So is its companion, parasitic tension. Parasitic movement is the excess contraction of muscles that you don't actually need to complete an action.
freya
what are eukaryotic cells
Thiza Reply
eukaryotic cells which posses a true nucleus that is the DNA is enclosed and covered by a nuclear membrane
Grace
what is the mean of pair of chromosomes
Kazula Reply
hi
Lagos
23 haploid and 23diploid
Patson
how are you studying in this quarantine? .. how are you keeping yourselves motivated?
sivajijadhav @815.com
good morning guyz
Joelia
morning
Kazula
hi
Justin
Good
Angela
tell me if you know what can be used...than reading pls hint me pls 🙏🙏🙏
Angela
what is the important of sex
Aremu Reply
why did human being need sex?
Aremu
because he/she have feelings
Chripine
reproduction...to make more
Yazi
due to active harmon
Manish
One important of sex is to reproduce
Emma
to ensure the countinuty of life
Yusuf
all of you are right
Edith
what is momentum
Asiya Reply
The strength or force that allows something to continue or grow stronger or faster as time pass
Emma
What is Centripetal Force?
Justin
centrepital force is the inward force required to keep a body moving with constant speed in a circular path
Yusuf
what is the test for protein
Takii Reply
List four condition necessary for seed germination
Tedeka Reply
water,air(oxygen),light,temperature
Hassan
water, light, oxygen and temperature
lilchris
water, oxygen, light temperature
Mike
water oxygen light and temperature
John
importance of biology
Alabina Reply
importance of boilogy
Alabina
what is soil
Amina Reply
soil is the upper part of the earth
Alabina
what is importance of studying biology
Alabina
soil is the uppermost layer of the earth on which plant grows
Yusuf
soil is defined as the thin surface of the upper most layer of the earth crust on which plants grow
Thanni
soil is the upper part of the earth which plants grow on
Emma
differences between euglenoid and amoeboid
Grace Reply
what are the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
Maxwell Reply
Aerobic respiration involves the use of oxygen whiles anaerobic respiration does not involve the use of oxygen
Quabena
what is assmilation
Lucy Reply
what is cell
Manish Reply
cell is the structural and functional unit of life or living things
hamid
where anaerobic respiration occurre?
Manish
in cell
Manish
in cells?
Manish
where anaerobic respiration occurre in cell?
Manish

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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