# 2.1 Atoms, isotopes, ions, and molecules: the building blocks  (Page 6/61)

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## Electron orbitals

Although useful to explain the reactivity and chemical bonding of certain elements, the Bohr model of the atom does not accurately reflect how electrons are spatially distributed surrounding the nucleus. They do not circle the nucleus like the earth orbits the sun, but are found in electron orbitals . These relatively complex shapes result from the fact that electrons behave not just like particles, but also like waves. Mathematical equations from quantum mechanics known as wave functions can predict within a certain level of probability where an electron might be at any given time. The area where an electron is most likely to be found is called its orbital.

Recall that the Bohr model depicts an atom’s electron shell configuration. Within each electron shell are subshells, and each subshell has a specified number of orbitals containing electrons. While it is impossible to calculate exactly where an electron is located, scientists know that it is most probably located within its orbital path. Subshells are designated by the letter s, p , d , and f . The s subshell is spherical in shape and has one orbital. Principal shell 1n has only a single s orbital, which can hold two electrons. Principal shell 2n has one s and one p subshell, and can hold a total of eight electrons. The p subshell has three dumbbell-shaped orbitals, as illustrated in [link] . Subshells d and f have more complex shapes and contain five and seven orbitals, respectively. These are not shown in the illustration. Principal shell 3n has s , p , and d subshells and can hold 18 electrons. Principal shell 4n has s , p , d and f orbitals and can hold 32 electrons. Moving away from the nucleus, the number of electrons and orbitals found in the energy levels increases. Progressing from one atom to the next in the periodic table, the electron structure can be worked out by fitting an extra electron into the next available orbital.

The closest orbital to the nucleus, called the 1s orbital, can hold up to two electrons. This orbital is equivalent to the innermost electron shell of the Bohr model of the atom. It is called the 1 s orbital because it is spherical around the nucleus. The 1 s orbital is the closest orbital to the nucleus, and it is always filled first, before any other orbital can be filled. Hydrogen has one electron; therefore, it has only one spot within the 1 s orbital occupied. This is designated as 1 s 1 , where the superscripted 1 refers to the one electron within the 1 s orbital. Helium has two electrons; therefore, it can completely fill the 1 s orbital with its two electrons. This is designated as 1 s 2 , referring to the two electrons of helium in the 1 s orbital. On the periodic table [link] , hydrogen and helium are the only two elements in the first row (period); this is because they only have electrons in their first shell, the 1 s orbital. Hydrogen and helium are the only two elements that have the 1 s and no other electron orbitals in the electrically neutral state.

what is rispiration
transpiration in organism
Liaquat
what is biology mean?
bio means life logy means study . study about life . physiology. morphology . anatomy and others organisms related topics is termed as biology
Darshan
Biology is the study life. that the study about living organism
SIRAJO
cell
Gachriku
what is oxidation?
the state or result of being oxidized
Emmanuel
hahahaha thanks, but my teachers requires a thorough meaning about that
Rose
Is the process of oxidizing ,the addition of oxygen to a compound with a loss of electrons, always accompanied by reduction
Korletey
loss of electron....
Anwar
thank you. 😊
Rose
thank you. 😊
Rose
thank you. 😊
Rose
what is oxidized
Oyebanji
the process or result of oxidizing or being oxidized.
Jersey
my pleasure
Anwar
Anwar
to rose...
Anwar
oxidation is the removal of oxygen addition of hydrogen
SIRAJO
what is genetic
name the enzymes that i found in the saliva
draw a bacterium cell and label
What are the osmoregulatory functions of the kidney?
filter
Meenu
What is ecology
what is cell
cell is the basic unit of life
Asiatou
cell is the basic structural and functional unit of an living organism
Darshan
a cell is the smallest and most basic unit of a living thing
John
cell is the basic unit of life. we are made up of 60,000 billions of cells.Each cell carry out a specific function in the body.
Pallavi
A cell is the smallest basic functioning unit of life.
Ali
where is the pectoral gridle located?
What is hypotonic
what is hypotonic
Dangaya
Hypotonic means weak solution
Ali
the difference between the two cells
explain the courses and the correction of lon term sightedness and short term sightedness
long sightedness is said to be like someone that can see far object clearly why short sightedness is someone that only can see near obect
SHEDRACK
why drinking excess alcohol causes thirst and dehydration
Elia
yes
Uzair
sure
Uzair
Uhm why is it so important to follow the nutritional process?
Elia
BC it contribute to the source of life
SHEDRACK
what is reproduction
it is d act of bringing young ones to life
Oyebanji
to ensure survival of a species🚴‍♀️
Michelle
what is a genotype
Collins
what is hazardous
smart
a cell is the smallest unit of a living thing. so we all have cell
smart
It is the formation of a zygote resulting from the fusion of the sperm cell with the ovum.Thus,this results in the production of new species which are genetically dissimilar from their parent cells.
Pallavi
yes we all have cell round our body without the existances of cell them they will be no life in us as human
SHEDRACK