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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe epithelial tissues
  • Discuss the different types of connective tissues in animals
  • Describe three types of muscle tissues
  • Describe nervous tissue

The tissues of multicellular, complex animals are four primary types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous. Recall that tissues are groups of similar cells group of similar cells carrying out related functions. These tissues combine to form organs—like the skin or kidney—that have specific, specialized functions within the body. Organs are organized into organ systems to perform functions; examples include the circulatory system, which consists of the heart and blood vessels, and the digestive system, consisting of several organs, including the stomach, intestines, liver, and pancreas. Organ systems come together to create an entire organism.

Epithelial tissues

Epithelial tissues cover the outside of organs and structures in the body and line the lumens of organs in a single layer or multiple layers of cells. The types of epithelia are classified by the shapes of cells present and the number of layers of cells. Epithelia composed of a single layer of cells is called simple epithelia    ; epithelial tissue composed of multiple layers is called stratified epithelia    . [link] summarizes the different types of epithelial tissues.

Different Types of Epithelial Tissues
Cell shape Description Location
squamous flat, irregular round shape simple: lung alveoli, capillaries stratified: skin, mouth, vagina
cuboidal cube shaped, central nucleus glands, renal tubules
columnar tall, narrow, nucleus toward base tall, narrow, nucleus along cell simple: digestive tract pseudostratified: respiratory tract
transitional round, simple but appear stratified urinary bladder

Squamous epithelia

Squamous epithelial cells are generally round, flat, and have a small, centrally located nucleus. The cell outline is slightly irregular, and cells fit together to form a covering or lining. When the cells are arranged in a single layer (simple epithelia), they facilitate diffusion in tissues, such as the areas of gas exchange in the lungs and the exchange of nutrients and waste at blood capillaries.

Illustration A shows irregularly shaped cells with a central nucleus. Micrograph B shows a cross section of squamous cells from the human cervix. In the upper layer the cells appear to be tightly packed. In they middle layer they appear to be more loosely packed, and in the lower layer they are flatter and elongated.
Squamous epithelia cells (a) have a slightly irregular shape, and a small, centrally located nucleus. These cells can be stratified into layers, as in (b) this human cervix specimen. (credit b: modification of work by Ed Uthman; scale-bar data from Matt Russell)

[link] a illustrates a layer of squamous cells with their membranes joined together to form an epithelium. Image [link] b illustrates squamous epithelial cells arranged in stratified layers, where protection is needed on the body from outside abrasion and damage. This is called a stratified squamous epithelium and occurs in the skin and in tissues lining the mouth and vagina.

Cuboidal epithelia

Cuboidal epithelial cells, shown in [link] , are cube-shaped with a single, central nucleus. They are most commonly found in a single layer representing a simple epithelia in glandular tissues throughout the body where they prepare and secrete glandular material. They are also found in the walls of tubules and in the ducts of the kidney and liver.

Questions & Answers

what are the organelles in cell that involves in protein sythenis
Rita Reply
what is a melanin?
Judith Reply
Why do parasites take on a parasitic life?
Asadullah Reply
what is cell
Ousman Reply
A cell is the basic structure unit of an organ
Yaa
what is respiration
Igwe
What will to a cell if the nucleus is removed..?
Goodrick Reply
When a cell nucleus removed then the cell will not be able to function properly, it will not be able to grow .All the metabolic functioning of the cell will stop .Without nucleus the cell will lose it's control. It can not carry out cellular reproduction .
Evelyn
write a short note on how the kidney carry out osmoregulation in man
Rhoda Reply
Kidney play a very large role in human osoregulation by regulating the amount of water reabsorbed from glomerular filtrate in kidney as tubules, which is controlled by hormones such as antrdiuvetic hormone (ADH) , aldosterone and angiotensin.
Evelyn
kidney is capable of osmoregulation in mammal ,
Judith
simple definition for respiratory system
Gift Reply
Respiratory system is a network of organs and tissues that helps you to breathe or help in getting the rids of oxygen and discharge of carbon dioxide in the body.
Ruhiyatu
What are uses of respiratory system
Joster
how it functions
Ousman
what is inresparetion
Fikkabex
Why do parasites take on a parasitic life?
Asadullah
how is a aerenchyma tissue adapted to its function
fatuma Reply
Have large air spaces that store air for gaseous exchange... Large air spaces also facilitate bouyancy.
Goodrick
what does DNA mean
innocent Reply
dioxiribo nucleic acid
Lekan
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Goodrick
dioxide nucleic acid
Shadrack
what does RNA mean
Shadrack
Ribonucleic acid
Goodrick
what is DNA and RNA
Miriam
what is a zygote
Victor Reply
zygote is developed or fertilized egg cell
Lekan
what is the difference between cell wall and cell membrane
Ruhiyatu Reply
cell wall is found in plant while cell membrane is found in animal cell
Lekan
please this is the main answer to that question okay Cell wall gives shape and support to the cell whiles Cell membrane support the movement of substances into and out of the cell. This question is very tricky that's why I asked.
Ruhiyatu
cell wall makes the cell turgid,in times of flaccidity while cell membrane is a semi permeable tissue
Judith
how cell I form
Elijah Reply
what difference between animal cell and plant cell
Lazarus Reply
what is animal call
Rita
Animal cell does not have a cell wall but plant cell have a cell wall
Ruhiyatu
plant have cell Wall well animal have not cell wall
Yula
animal cell has a lysosome, while, plant cell does not
Judith
what is fertilization?
Muhamed Reply
Fertilization is the fusion of male sex cell and female sex cell to form a zygote.
Ruhiyatu
What kind of nutrients is composed of plants
Annie Reply
phosphorus,potassium,nitrogen
Kritika
NPK
Ruhiyatu

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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