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Watch “The Pale Pitcher Plant” episode of the video series Plants Are Cool, Too, a Botanical Society of America video about a carnivorous plant species found in Louisiana.

Evolution connection

Plant adaptations in resource-deficient environments

Roots, stems, and leaves are structured to ensure that a plant can obtain the required sunlight, water, soil nutrients, and oxygen resources. Some remarkable adaptations have evolved to enable plant species to thrive in less than ideal habitats, where one or more of these resources is in short supply.

In tropical rainforests, light is often scarce, since many trees and plants grow close together and block much of the sunlight from reaching the forest floor. Many tropical plant species have exceptionally broad leaves to maximize the capture of sunlight. Other species are epiphytes: plants that grow on other plants that serve as a physical support. Such plants are able to grow high up in the canopy atop the branches of other trees, where sunlight is more plentiful. Epiphytes live on rain and minerals collected in the branches and leaves of the supporting plant. Bromeliads (members of the pineapple family), ferns, and orchids are examples of tropical epiphytes ( [link] ). Many epiphytes have specialized tissues that enable them to efficiently capture and store water.

Photo shows long, thin brown leaves of Spanish moss hanging down from the branches of a large oak tree.
One of the most well known bromeliads is Spanish moss ( Tillandsia usneoides ), seen here in an oak tree. (credit: Kristine Paulus)

Some plants have special adaptations that help them to survive in nutrient-poor environments. Carnivorous plants, such as the Venus flytrap and the pitcher plant ( [link] ), grow in bogs where the soil is low in nitrogen. In these plants, leaves are modified to capture insects. The insect-capturing leaves may have evolved to provide these plants with a supplementary source of much-needed nitrogen.

 Left photo shows modified leaves of a Venus flytrap. The two leaves resemble the upper and lower part of the mouth, and are red on the interior. Hair-like appendages, like teeth, frame each modified leaf, so that when the leaves close, the insect will be trapped. Right photo shows three modified leaves of the pitcher plant, which are green tubes with red specks and have a red rim forming the top opening.
The (a) Venus flytrap has modified leaves that can capture insects. When an unlucky insect touches the trigger hairs inside the leaf, the trap suddenly closes. The opening of the (b) pitcher plant is lined with a slippery wax. Insects crawling on the lip slip and fall into a pool of water in the bottom of the pitcher, where they are digested by bacteria. The plant then absorbs the smaller molecules. (credit a: modification of work by Peter Shanks; credit b: modification of work by Tim Mansfield)

Many swamp plants have adaptations that enable them to thrive in wet areas, where their roots grow submerged underwater. In these aquatic areas, the soil is unstable and little oxygen is available to reach the roots. Trees such as mangroves ( Rhizophora sp.) growing in coastal waters produce aboveground roots that help support the tree ( [link] ). Some species of mangroves, as well as cypress trees, have pneumatophores: upward-growing roots containing pores and pockets of tissue specialized for gas exchange. Wild rice is an aquatic plant with large air spaces in the root cortex. The air-filled tissue—called aerenchyma—provides a path for oxygen to diffuse down to the root tips, which are embedded in oxygen-poor bottom sediments.

 Photo A shows mangrove trees with roots extending into the water. Part B shows cypress trees growing in the water, with upward-growing roots between the trees. Part C is a scanning electron micrograph showing a cross section of wild rice. The cells radiate from the center like spokes on a bicycle wheel, and are interspersed by large spaces that hold air.
The branches of (a) mangrove trees develop aerial roots, which descend to the ground and help to anchor the trees. (b) Cypress trees and some mangrove species have upward-growing roots called pneumatophores that are involved in gas exchange. Aquatic plants such as (c) wild rice have large spaces in the root cortex called aerenchyma, visualized here using scanning electron microscopy. (credit a: modification of work by Roberto Verzo; credit b: modification of work by Duane Burdick; credit c: modification of work by Robert R. Wise)

Watch Venus Flytraps: Jaws of Death , an extraordinary BBC close-up of the Venus flytrap in action.

Section summary

Leaves are the main site of photosynthesis. A typical leaf consists of a lamina (the broad part of the leaf, also called the blade) and a petiole (the stalk that attaches the leaf to a stem). The arrangement of leaves on a stem, known as phyllotaxy, enables maximum exposure to sunlight. Each plant species has a characteristic leaf arrangement and form. The pattern of leaf arrangement may be alternate, opposite, or spiral, while leaf form may be simple or compound. Leaf tissue consists of the epidermis, which forms the outermost cell layer, and mesophyll and vascular tissue, which make up the inner portion of the leaf. In some plant species, leaf form is modified to form structures such as tendrils, spines, bud scales, and needles.

Questions & Answers

what are the two types of electron microscope
Sharlom Reply
light microscope and early microscope
Sama
Enzymes are biological catalyst which alter any reaction and protein in nature
Nkoue Reply
Thanks
Gaudi
Your welcome sir
Nkoue
guyz you enjoying
Royd
What is translation and transcription
Nkoue
Transcription is making RNA from DNA. Translation is going from RNA to proteins.
Eric
what is the definition of enzymes
Royd Reply
enzymes are biological catalyst that speed up chemical reaction.
Alale
What are enzymes?
Gaudi
Enzymes are made of proteins and lower the energy of activation. In other words, they bring things together which helps to lower the amount of energy for a reaction to go forward.
Eric
they are catalyses that speeds up chemical reaction.... e.g they break down the food we consume.
Azeez
what is a spirogyra
Talabi Reply
Spirogyra is a filamentous chlorophyte green algae of the order Zygnematales. It is named for the helical or spiral arrangement of the chloroplasts. That is characteristic of the genus. It is commonly found in freshwater habitats. And there are more than 400 species of Spirogyra in the world.
Eric
what is the mean of biology
Bello Reply
what is cell
Bello
A cell is the smallest living unit.
Eric
Hi I'm new in this group can someone please help with the list features shared by plants and charopytes that are not shared with most other eukaryotes
Wendy
what is eutrophication
Chinaza Reply
Show well labeled diagram of female reproductive organs
Lanlege Reply
phenotype is your big head
Amagiya Reply
The phenotype is the physical appearance or things you can see. Or the traits expressed by ones DNA.
Eric
phenotypes are appearance that can be seen and touched
Chidera
what is a dichotomous key
Moses Reply
explain the role of
Moses
Dichotomous key : Is the key that is use to classify or group an organism base on their common features
Alale
an amoeba is what kind of cellular organism?
Mercy Reply
It is a protizoa with bilayer membrane bound organelles. Therefore it is eukaryotic.
Eric
what is amoeba
Muhammad
amoeba is a unicellular organisms. Therefore it is made u of only one call.
Alale
what is phenotype
Muhammad
amoeba is a unicellular organism with one cell
Chinaza
name ten equipments found in soil science laboratory and their uses
AFANU Reply
daigram of connective tissue
Yunusa Reply
what is polarization
Finda Reply
in the concept of science, polarization involves light, radiation, magnetism moving in specific directions
Chidera
What is appendicular
GLORIA Reply
relating to or denoting an appendage or appendages.
Eric
Homeostasis definition
Ben Reply
can be defined as a steady of internal environment
Aliyu
MMMM!!!
Kaole
🙄
Aliyu
:-)
Kaole

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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