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These areas of study are still sciences, however. Consider archeology—even though one cannot perform repeatable experiments, hypotheses may still be supported. For instance, an archeologist can hypothesize that an ancient culture existed based on finding a piece of pottery. Further hypotheses could be made about various characteristics of this culture, and these hypotheses may be found to be correct or false through continued support or contradictions from other findings. A hypothesis may become a verified theory. A theory    is a tested and confirmed explanation for observations or phenomena. Science may be better defined as fields of study that attempt to comprehend the nature of the universe.

Natural sciences

What would you expect to see in a museum of natural sciences? Frogs? Plants? Dinosaur skeletons? Exhibits about how the brain functions? A planetarium? Gems and minerals? Or, maybe all of the above? Science includes such diverse fields as astronomy, biology, computer sciences, geology, logic, physics, chemistry, and mathematics ( [link] ). However, those fields of science related to the physical world and its phenomena and processes are considered natural sciences . Thus, a museum of natural sciences might contain any of the items listed above.

A collage includes a photo of planets in our solar system, a DNA molecule, scientific equipment, a cross-section of the ocean floor, scientific symbols, a magnetic field, beakers of fluid, and a geometry problem.
The diversity of scientific fields includes astronomy, biology, computer science, geology, logic, physics, chemistry, mathematics, and many other fields. (credit: “Image Editor”/Flickr)

There is no complete agreement when it comes to defining what the natural sciences include, however. For some experts, the natural sciences are astronomy, biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. Other scholars choose to divide natural sciences into life sciences , which study living things and include biology, and physical sciences , which study nonliving matter and include astronomy, geology, physics, and chemistry. Some disciplines such as biophysics and biochemistry build on both life and physical sciences and are interdisciplinary. Natural sciences are sometimes referred to as “hard science” because they rely on the use of quantitative data; social sciences that study society and human behavior are more likely to use qualitative assessments to drive investigations and findings.

Not surprisingly, the natural science of biology has many branches or subdisciplines. Cell biologists study cell structure and function, while biologists who study anatomy investigate the structure of an entire organism. Those biologists studying physiology, however, focus on the internal functioning of an organism. Some areas of biology focus on only particular types of living things. For example, botanists explore plants, while zoologists specialize in animals.

Scientific reasoning

One thing is common to all forms of science: an ultimate goal “to know.” Curiosity and inquiry are the driving forces for the development of science. Scientists seek to understand the world and the way it operates. To do this, they use two methods of logical thinking: inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning.

Questions & Answers

explain sexual reproduction of a named flower taking account of pollination, fertilization and the change to seed and fruit.
Chinyi Reply
The study of all life or living matterThe living organisms of a particular region.
Oyewale Reply
what is ology
Green Reply
in which of the following stages of the cell cycle are chromosomes pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell
Amie Reply
Anaphase
Jonah
what is digestive system
Cyprain Reply
Digestive system is a system in mammals associated with the breaking down or assimilation of food substances into simple soluble and diffusable substances by mechanical and chemical means
Emmanuel
what is symbiotic factors of an organisms
Emmanuel Reply
what are Nephron's
Simon Reply
cells of the kidneys
Nanmwa
what is biology
Abubakar Reply
Describe cellular event during meiosis
Nkeng Reply
what is the difference between compound light microscope and electron microscope
Nadia Reply
Hy can u help me plz
Khurram
i need all meterial related to MCAT
Khurram
what is tracheids
Samuel Reply
what is the branches of biology
Iviyn Reply
botany zoology microorganisms
Jyoti
what are prokaryotic cell
Mutala
What is abiotic
Mawen Reply
what is prokaryotit
Akanpanam Reply
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Ernestina Reply
Gd evening guys pls some should help me with the excretory function of the kidney
Fonki
separate waste (urine) from the body
Simon

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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