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Alanine has a 3 carbon chain. The second carbon has NH2 attached and the third has a double bonded O.  When 2 alanines bond, the OH from one and the H from the NH2 of the other form water. The resulting molecule is two alanines linked by an NH.
Peptide bond formation is a dehydration synthesis reaction. The carboxyl group of the first amino acid (alanine) is linked to the amino group of the incoming second amino acid (alanine). In the process, a molecule of water is released.
  • How many amino acids are in polypeptides?

Protein structure

The size (length) and specific amino acid sequence of a protein are major determinants of its shape, and the shape of a protein is critical to its function. For example, in the process of biological nitrogen fixation (see Biogeochemical Cycles ), soil microorganisms collectively known as rhizobia symbiotically interact with roots of legume plants such as soybeans, peanuts, or beans to form a novel structure called a nodule on the plant roots. The plant then produces a carrier protein called leghemoglobin, a protein that carries nitrogen or oxygen. Leghemoglobin binds with a very high affinity to its substrate oxygen at a specific region of the protein where the shape and amino acid sequence are appropriate (the active site ). If the shape or chemical environment of the active site is altered, even slightly, the substrate may not be able to bind as strongly, or it may not bind at all. Thus, for the protein to be fully active, it must have the appropriate shape for its function.

Protein structure is categorized in terms of four levels: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. The primary structure is simply the sequence of amino acid s that make up the polypeptide chain . [link] depicts the primary structure of a protein.

The chain of amino acids that defines a protein’s primary structure is not rigid, but instead is flexible because of the nature of the bonds that hold the amino acids together. When the chain is sufficiently long, hydrogen bonding may occur between amine and carbonyl functional groups within the peptide backbone (excluding the R side group), resulting in localized folding of the polypeptide chain into helices and sheets. These shapes constitute a protein’s secondary structure . The most common secondary structures are the α-helix and β-pleated sheet. In the α-helix structure, the helix is held by hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atom in a carbonyl group of one amino acid and the hydrogen atom of the amino group that is just four amino acid units farther along the chain. In the β-pleated sheet , the pleats are formed by similar hydrogen bonds between continuous sequences of carbonyl and amino groups that are further separated on the backbone of the polypeptide chain ( [link] ).

The next level of protein organization is the tertiary structure , which is the large-scale three-dimensional shape of a single polypeptide chain. Tertiary structure is determined by interactions between amino acid residues that are far apart in the chain. A variety of interactions give rise to protein tertiary structure, such as disulfide bridge s, which are bonds between the sulfhydryl (–SH) functional groups on amino acid side groups; hydrogen bonds; ionic bonds; and hydrophobic interactions between nonpolar side chains. All these interactions, weak and strong, combine to determine the final three-dimensional shape of the protein and its function ( [link] ).

Questions & Answers

what are granulocytes
Shawnitta Reply
suitable example for prokaryotes
Suvetha Reply
one of the possible early sources of energy was
Suvetha
uv radiation and lighting
Anisha
which is the specific virus causing typhoid
Jeremiah Reply
it's caused by a virulent bacteria called Salmonella Typhi
Sarah
write the life cycle of HIV
Firomsa Reply
describe the internal and external structure of prokaryotic cell in terms of there appearance and functions
Lenia Reply
compare and contrast similar structures found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Lenia
control of microorganisms
ISTEFAZUL Reply
how can a doctor treat a person affected by endospore forming bacteria in his/her wound?
Mambo Reply
a 28 years old woman come to your clinic with complain of fever painful genital blisters which express clear fluid when ruptured burning sensation around the bristers what is the diagnosis?
Ramadhani Reply
genital herpes caused by a virus called herpe simplex virus
Doris
what is the reference between selective medium and differential medium?
Tony Reply
the micro flora of air is transient why
Princess
Hello.... Am new here
essien Reply
welcome essien
Muhammad
welcome essien
Beka
I'm new here
kumeiwoe
Welcome Macpue!😊
prosper
classification of gram positive
lissa Reply
classify gram positive
lissa
catalase test is done to differentiate between staph and strep. as staph is catalase positive while strep is catalase negative then staph is differentiate further on coagulase positive and coagulase negative. staph aureus is coagulase positive while staph epidermidis is coagulase negative.
Muhammad
gram positive staph is further differentiated on sensitivity test and manitol salt fermentation test while gram positive strep is differentiated on hemolysis pattern
Muhammad
more about gramm positive
lissa
please
lissa
ok
Blessing
am back any gist
Blessing
taxonomy
Rahul
can i use the graph of bacterial growth for my master's thesis?
Christoph Reply
facultative anaerobic bavteria gives uniform turdibity in nutrient broth why?
Princess Reply
oils and waxes are not sterilized in autoclave
Princess
what is the function of paraffin
Muhammad
@ MAHI because they can grow all over the media from surface to the bottom as they can utilize oxygen or conduct fermentation in its absence.
Online
2.@MAHI Autoclave uses steam under pressure. The steam cannot penetrate through oil and wax. Thus, dry heat sterilization is preferred than autoclave .
Online
thnku
Nadiya
how nutirent agar can converted into blood agar
Princess
thank you
Princess
take a nutrient agar ........and add 5ml blood and put in it ...........!
Nadiya
nutrient agar +blood 5ml+ distilled water =blood agar .
Nadiya
mixed wellllll
Nadiya
hi
Rahul
why agar is not a neutrient source?
Shimul
because it's a general purpose agar only use for growing bacteria
Richa
way is antigen
opaleye
what is antigen
opaleye
antigen is a foreign body that cause activation of antibody?
ASNAKE
Antigen is a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
Shimul
thanks for that
opaleye
what is pharmacology
Luyenu
a science that studies about the drug
ASNAKE
hello ever one
Sayid
y
Abdul
Work hard
Anigor
y
Abdul
thanks alot
Luyenu
What is the major different between gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
Asikur
bacteria kya hai
Mala
content of their cell wall
Doris
koi mujhse basic microbiology ki study k Lea book suggest kro .
Richa
Harley prescott
Vikas
what are the five predisposing factors of opportunistic infections
Asher Reply
1. long term exposure to diseases, that the body immunity weakens.
prosper
2. Nature Of some diseases to weaken body immunity such as, AIDS.
prosper
3. Use of immuno-suppresive drugs.
prosper
anyone... need a hand here 🙋😞
prosper
Low immune is the major cause eg for kaposis sarcoma
Davismith
suitable conditions e.g temp,
Muhammad
what os gnormal flora
kifayat Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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