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Photo depicts a Karner blue butterfly, which has light blue wings with gold ovals and black dots around the edges.
The Karner blue butterfly ( Lycaeides melissa samuelis ) is a rare butterfly that lives only in open areas with few trees or shrubs, such as pine barrens and oak savannas. It can only lay its eggs on lupine plants. (credit: modification of work by J&K Hollingsworth, USFWS)

After hatching, the larval caterpillars emerge and spend four to six weeks feeding solely on wild lupine ( [link] ). The caterpillars pupate (undergo metamorphosis) and emerge as butterflies after about four weeks. The adult butterflies feed on the nectar of flowers of wild lupine and other plant species. A researcher interested in studying Karner blue butterflies at the organismal level might, in addition to asking questions about egg laying, ask questions about the butterflies’ preferred temperature (a physiological question) or the behavior of the caterpillars when they are at different larval stages (a behavioral question).

This photo depicts a wild lupine flower, which is long and thin with clam-shaped petals radiating out from the center. The bottom third of the flower is blue, the middle is pink and blue, and the top is green.
The wild lupine ( Lupinus perennis ) is the host plant for the Karner blue butterfly.

Population ecology

A population is a group of interbreeding organisms that are members of the same species living in the same area at the same time. (Organisms that are all members of the same species are called conspecifics    .) A population is identified, in part, by where it lives, and its area of population may have natural or artificial boundaries: natural boundaries might be rivers, mountains, or deserts, while examples of artificial boundaries include mowed grass, manmade structures, or roads. The study of population ecology focuses on the number of individuals in an area and how and why population size changes over time. Population ecologists are particularly interested in counting the Karner blue butterfly, for example, because it is classified as federally endangered. However, the distribution and density of this species is highly influenced by the distribution and abundance of wild lupine. Researchers might ask questions about the factors leading to the decline of wild lupine and how these affect Karner blue butterflies. For example, ecologists know that wild lupine thrives in open areas where trees and shrubs are largely absent. In natural settings, intermittent wildfires regularly remove trees and shrubs, helping to maintain the open areas that wild lupine requires. Mathematical models can be used to understand how wildfire suppression by humans has led to the decline of this important plant for the Karner blue butterfly.

Community ecology

A biological community consists of the different species within an area, typically a three-dimensional space, and the interactions within and among these species. Community ecologists are interested in the processes driving these interactions and their consequences. Questions about conspecific interactions often focus on competition among members of the same species for a limited resource. Ecologists also study interactions among various species; members of different species are called heterospecifics    . Examples of heterospecific interactions include predation, parasitism, herbivory, competition, and pollination. These interactions can have regulating effects on population sizes and can impact ecological and evolutionary processes affecting diversity.

Questions & Answers

reproduction it's full meaning
Gift Reply
full meaning of ATP
Gifty
A life process in which living things increase their population through sexual or non sexual intercouse
Danisha
please explaination
Daniel
reproduction is the process where living organisms producess their offspring
jerry Reply
what is reproduction
Nmesoma Reply
why some kinds of students are failed
Ahmadi Reply
lack of concentration
Faith
lack of guidance and counseling
ali
What is the meaning of optic
Kisaky Reply
Giving a specific section of the alimentary canal,describe 3 ways in which physical digestion occurs.
Kisaky
mouth when chewing
ephraim
what is population
Ivy Reply
total number of people living in an area
FILDA
a number of people lives in one catigorize area or named area
Oburak
what is a cell
Chiko Reply
basic and functional unit of life
Edwin
cell is tissues that makes up functional life in human or un animal.
Oburak
is the smallest basic unit of life.
Kisaky
Is the smallest baic unit. o
Kisaky
why cell is very important to human body
Ahmadi
what is diffusion
Henry
diffusion is a process of mix of particles from higher concentration to the lower one,to make the body functional normal
Adam
what is soil
FILDA Reply
Is the finely divided material covering the earth crust.
Kisaky
is the upper moist of layer of the earth surface
Ahmadi
what is reducing sugar
Erica Reply
in genetics which disease is also termed as the queen disease
Phinihas Reply
what are the types of cell
Teye Reply
prokaryote ,eukaryote, akaryotes
bonney
what is akaryotes ?
Chriscia
multicellular and unicellular
Edwin
akaryotes are organisms that function as eukaryotes and prokaryotes
Edwin
akaryotes are cell with no nucleus
Edwin
biology is the study of living organisms
bonney Reply
what are the important of cells in the body
Nharnhar Reply
what is biology
Saidu Reply
Is the study of living things
Nharnhar
it is the scientific study of living organisms
Kenneth
ls the study of life and living organisms
Charles
what are the impotance of proteins
Mark
what is the standArd deviation
mascuud
is the study of living organisms
Erica
what is diffusion
Lenox Reply
what are the important of ecology?
Lenox
Is the movement of molecules of gasses and liquids from the region of high concentration to the region of low concentration down the concentration grandient
Kisaky

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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