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Photo depicts a Karner blue butterfly, which has light blue wings with gold ovals and black dots around the edges.
The Karner blue butterfly ( Lycaeides melissa samuelis ) is a rare butterfly that lives only in open areas with few trees or shrubs, such as pine barrens and oak savannas. It can only lay its eggs on lupine plants. (credit: modification of work by J&K Hollingsworth, USFWS)

After hatching, the larval caterpillars emerge and spend four to six weeks feeding solely on wild lupine ( [link] ). The caterpillars pupate (undergo metamorphosis) and emerge as butterflies after about four weeks. The adult butterflies feed on the nectar of flowers of wild lupine and other plant species. A researcher interested in studying Karner blue butterflies at the organismal level might, in addition to asking questions about egg laying, ask questions about the butterflies’ preferred temperature (a physiological question) or the behavior of the caterpillars when they are at different larval stages (a behavioral question).

This photo depicts a wild lupine flower, which is long and thin with clam-shaped petals radiating out from the center. The bottom third of the flower is blue, the middle is pink and blue, and the top is green.
The wild lupine ( Lupinus perennis ) is the host plant for the Karner blue butterfly.

Population ecology

A population is a group of interbreeding organisms that are members of the same species living in the same area at the same time. (Organisms that are all members of the same species are called conspecifics    .) A population is identified, in part, by where it lives, and its area of population may have natural or artificial boundaries: natural boundaries might be rivers, mountains, or deserts, while examples of artificial boundaries include mowed grass, manmade structures, or roads. The study of population ecology focuses on the number of individuals in an area and how and why population size changes over time. Population ecologists are particularly interested in counting the Karner blue butterfly, for example, because it is classified as federally endangered. However, the distribution and density of this species is highly influenced by the distribution and abundance of wild lupine. Researchers might ask questions about the factors leading to the decline of wild lupine and how these affect Karner blue butterflies. For example, ecologists know that wild lupine thrives in open areas where trees and shrubs are largely absent. In natural settings, intermittent wildfires regularly remove trees and shrubs, helping to maintain the open areas that wild lupine requires. Mathematical models can be used to understand how wildfire suppression by humans has led to the decline of this important plant for the Karner blue butterfly.

Community ecology

A biological community consists of the different species within an area, typically a three-dimensional space, and the interactions within and among these species. Community ecologists are interested in the processes driving these interactions and their consequences. Questions about conspecific interactions often focus on competition among members of the same species for a limited resource. Ecologists also study interactions among various species; members of different species are called heterospecifics    . Examples of heterospecific interactions include predation, parasitism, herbivory, competition, and pollination. These interactions can have regulating effects on population sizes and can impact ecological and evolutionary processes affecting diversity.

Questions & Answers

how does meiosis produced
Kauzi Reply
Meiosis happens in sex cells only. And produces 4 nonidentical sex cells.
Eric
what are structure of the cell
wana Reply
what did Darwin say about evolution
Hope Reply
effect of planning beans of using fertilizer
Elizerbeth Reply
what do we mean by transgenic organisms?
FADILAT Reply
what is or are the functions of the Islets of Langarhaans
FADILAT
They are the regions of the pancreas that contains the endocrine cell
Iyadi
is the studly of life
Aisha Reply
what is biology
Asunta Reply
is the study of living organism and their interection with one another and their environment.
Belbon
what is soil
Mukisa Reply
the top layer of the earth in which plant's, tree's
Ahmad
type of soil
Asunta
function of cell wall
Nthati Reply
function of cell wall
Asunta
To protect the cell from bursting
Maurice
to protect the cell from bursting
Deborah
to protect all other internal components of the cell
Olaoye
What is escherichia coli
Tumise Reply
It's an example of gram negative Bacteria
Abdulrasheed
in what type of cells is meiosis taking place?
Rhyeann Reply
sex cells
Eric
hlo
Amit
reproductive system of earthworm plzz describes
Amit
procryotic cell and some eucaryotic cell
Olaoye
Reproductive or sex cells
Abdulrasheed
applications of biology
Namawejje Reply
what is dormancy?
Aliyu Reply
hello guys what's the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Nwachukwu Reply
hlo what are the applications of biology?
Namawejje
eukaryotic cells have DNA in their nucleus while prokaryotic cells have their DNA present freely in their cytoplasm.
FADILAT
deviation from mendelian
Ogali Reply
what is lethal allele
Ogali
a lethal allele is an allele that can cause poor development or even death of an organism
Olaoye

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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