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Some animals hibernate or estivate to survive hostile temperatures. Hibernation enables animals to survive cold conditions, and estivation allows animals to survive the hostile conditions of a hot, dry climate. Animals that hibernate or estivate enter a state known as torpor: a condition in which their metabolic rate is significantly lowered. This enables the animal to wait until its environment better supports its survival. Some amphibians, such as the wood frog ( Rana sylvatica ), have an antifreeze-like chemical in their cells, which retains the cells’ integrity and prevents them from bursting.

Water

Water is required by all living things because it is critical for cellular processes. Since terrestrial organisms lose water to the environment by simple diffusion, they have evolved many adaptations to retain water.

  • Plants have a number of interesting features on their leaves, such as leaf hairs and a waxy cuticle, that serve to decrease the rate of water loss via transpiration.
  • Freshwater organisms are surrounded by water and are constantly in danger of having water rush into their cells because of osmosis. Many adaptations of organisms living in freshwater environments have evolved to ensure that solute concentrations in their bodies remain within appropriate levels. One such adaptation is the excretion of dilute urine.
  • Marine organisms are surrounded by water with a higher solute concentration than the organism and, thus, are in danger of losing water to the environment because of osmosis. These organisms have morphological and physiological adaptations to retain water and release solutes into the environment. For example, Marine iguanas ( Amblyrhynchus cristatus ), sneeze out water vapor that is high in salt in order to maintain solute concentrations within an acceptable range while swimming in the ocean and eating marine plants.

Inorganic nutrients and soil

Inorganic nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are important in the distribution and the abundance of living things. Plants obtain these inorganic nutrients from the soil when water moves into the plant through the roots. Therefore, soil structure (particle size of soil components), soil pH, and soil nutrient content play an important role in the distribution of plants. Animals obtain inorganic nutrients from the food they consume. Therefore, animal distributions are related to the distribution of what they eat. In some cases, animals will follow their food resource as it moves through the environment.

Other aquatic factors

Some abiotic factors, such as oxygen, are important in aquatic ecosystems as well as terrestrial environments. Terrestrial animals obtain oxygen from the air they breathe. Oxygen availability can be an issue for organisms living at very high elevations, however, where there are fewer molecules of oxygen in the air. In aquatic systems, the concentration of dissolved oxygen is related to water temperature and the speed at which the water moves. Cold water has more dissolved oxygen than warmer water. In addition, salinity, current, and tide can be important abiotic factors in aquatic ecosystems.

Questions & Answers

What is the meaning of optic
Kisaky Reply
Giving a specific section of the alimentary canal,describe 3 ways in which physical digestion occurs.
Kisaky
mouth when chewing
ephraim
what is population
Ivy Reply
total number of people living in an area
FILDA
a number of people lives in one catigorize area or named area
Oburak
what is a cell
Chiko Reply
basic and functional unit of life
Edwin
cell is tissues that makes up functional life in human or un animal.
Oburak
is the smallest basic unit of life.
Kisaky
Is the smallest baic unit. o
Kisaky
what is soil
FILDA Reply
Is the finely divided material covering the earth crust.
Kisaky
what is reducing sugar
Erica Reply
in genetics which disease is also termed as the queen disease
Phinihas Reply
what are the types of cell
Teye Reply
prokaryote ,eukaryote, akaryotes
bonney
what is akaryotes ?
Chriscia
multicellular and unicellular
Edwin
akaryotes are organisms that function as eukaryotes and prokaryotes
Edwin
akaryotes are cell with no nucleus
Edwin
biology is the study of living organisms
bonney Reply
what are the important of cells in the body
Nharnhar Reply
what is biology
Saidu Reply
Is the study of living things
Nharnhar
it is the scientific study of living organisms
Kenneth
ls the study of life and living organisms
Charles
what are the impotance of proteins
Mark
what is the standArd deviation
mascuud
is the study of living organisms
Erica
what is diffusion
Lenox Reply
what are the important of ecology?
Lenox
Is the movement of molecules of gasses and liquids from the region of high concentration to the region of low concentration down the concentration grandient
Kisaky
what are the importance of ecology
Foday Reply
double stranded DNA is found in which viruses?
Deborah Reply
Virusws usually dont hsve double strnaded DNA they have a single strand RNA. U should probably check them in gpogle just to be sure
Danisha
what would happen if humans were not multicellular
Grace Reply
ettr
Grace
sorry but no
Grace
what is biology
Emmanuel
study of life
Dads
what are types of photosynthesis
Dads
Is there any other type of a eukaryotic cell.
Grace Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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