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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe how life history patterns are influenced by natural selection
  • Explain different life history patterns and how different reproductive strategies affect species’ survival

A species’ life history    describes the series of events over its lifetime, such as how resources are allocated for growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Life history traits affect the life table of an organism. A species’ life history is genetically determined and shaped by the environment and natural selection.

Life history patterns and energy budgets

Energy is required by all living organisms for their growth, maintenance, and reproduction; at the same time, energy is often a major limiting factor in determining an organism’s survival. Plants, for example, acquire energy from the sun via photosynthesis, but must expend this energy to grow, maintain health, and produce energy-rich seeds to produce the next generation. Animals have the additional burden of using some of their energy reserves to acquire food. Furthermore, some animals must expend energy caring for their offspring. Thus, all species have an energy budget    : they must balance energy intake with their use of energy for metabolism, reproduction, parental care, and energy storage (such as bears building up body fat for winter hibernation).

Parental care and fecundity

Fecundity is the potential reproductive capacity of an individual within a population. In other words, fecundity describes how many offspring could ideally be produced if an individual has as many offspring as possible, repeating the reproductive cycle as soon as possible after the birth of the offspring. In animals, fecundity is inversely related to the amount of parental care given to an individual offspring. Species, such as many marine invertebrates, that produce many offspring usually provide little if any care for the offspring (they would not have the energy or the ability to do so anyway). Most of their energy budget is used to produce many tiny offspring. Animals with this strategy are often self-sufficient at a very early age. This is because of the energy tradeoff these organisms have made to maximize their evolutionary fitness. Because their energy is used for producing offspring instead of parental care, it makes sense that these offspring have some ability to be able to move within their environment and find food and perhaps shelter. Even with these abilities, their small size makes them extremely vulnerable to predation, so the production of many offspring allows enough of them to survive to maintain the species.

Animal species that have few offspring during a reproductive event usually give extensive parental care, devoting much of their energy budget to these activities, sometimes at the expense of their own health. This is the case with many mammals, such as humans, kangaroos, and pandas. The offspring of these species are relatively helpless at birth and need to develop before they achieve self-sufficiency.

Questions & Answers

hi I'm asking a question about HIV infection, can HIV infection transmitted from Mother to unbron child? please help me I So confused.
Khushboy Reply
what is the difference between primary and secondary active transport in detail? I didn't understand the steps in the textbook specifically
Fathima Reply
you are a doctor?
what is the meaning of connective tissue?
Mohammed Reply
what are the characteristics of living things
Owolo Reply
what's the meaning of connective tissue?
Reproduction, adaptation, interaction, movement, growth, respiration, made of cells, responsive to environment (homeostasis), metabolic action (consumption of food converted into energy)
state two most important factors that favour exponential growth of population of a gazelle in a pack
Eliza Reply
what are the two types of electron microscope
Sharlom Reply
light microscope and early microscope
Enzymes are biological catalyst which alter any reaction and protein in nature
Nkoue Reply
Your welcome sir
guyz you enjoying
What is translation and transcription
Transcription is making RNA from DNA. Translation is going from RNA to proteins.
what is the definition of enzymes
Royd Reply
enzymes are biological catalyst that speed up chemical reaction.
What are enzymes?
Enzymes are made of proteins and lower the energy of activation. In other words, they bring things together which helps to lower the amount of energy for a reaction to go forward.
they are catalyses that speeds up chemical reaction.... e.g they break down the food we consume.
what is a spirogyra
Talabi Reply
Spirogyra is a filamentous chlorophyte green algae of the order Zygnematales. It is named for the helical or spiral arrangement of the chloroplasts. That is characteristic of the genus. It is commonly found in freshwater habitats. And there are more than 400 species of Spirogyra in the world.
what is the mean of biology
Bello Reply
what is cell
A cell is the smallest living unit.
Hi I'm new in this group can someone please help with the list features shared by plants and charopytes that are not shared with most other eukaryotes
what is eutrophication
Chinaza Reply
Show well labeled diagram of female reproductive organs
Lanlege Reply
phenotype is your big head
Amagiya Reply
The phenotype is the physical appearance or things you can see. Or the traits expressed by ones DNA.
phenotypes are appearance that can be seen and touched
what is a dichotomous key
Moses Reply
explain the role of
Dichotomous key : Is the key that is use to classify or group an organism base on their common features
an amoeba is what kind of cellular organism?
Mercy Reply
It is a protizoa with bilayer membrane bound organelles. Therefore it is eukaryotic.
what is amoeba
amoeba is a unicellular organisms. Therefore it is made u of only one call.
what is phenotype
amoeba is a unicellular organism with one cell

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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