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Light microscopes commonly used in the undergraduate college laboratory magnify up to approximately 400 times. Two parameters that are important in microscopy are magnification and resolving power. Magnification is the process of enlarging an object in appearance. Resolving power is the ability of a microscope to distinguish two adjacent structures as separate: the higher the resolution, the better the clarity and detail of the image. When oil immersion lenses are used for the study of small objects, magnification is usually increased to 1,000 times. In order to gain a better understanding of cellular structure and function, scientists typically use electron microscopes.

Part a: This light microscope has binocular lenses and four objective lenses. The sample stage is directly beneath the objective lens. The light microscope sits on a tabletop and can be easily carried. Part b: The electron microscope shown here sits in a museum. It is about the size of a desk, and a person can sit in front of it to operate it. A column taller than a person rises from the center of the scope.
(a) Most light microscopes used in a college biology lab can magnify cells up to approximately 400 times and have a resolution of about 200 nanometers. (b) Electron microscopes provide a much higher magnification, 100,000x, and a have a resolution of 50 picometers. (credit a: modification of work by "GcG"/Wikimedia Commons; credit b: modification of work by Evan Bench)

Electron microscopes

In contrast to light microscopes, electron microscopes ( [link] b ) use a beam of electrons instead of a beam of light. Not only does this allow for higher magnification and, thus, more detail ( [link] ), it also provides higher resolving power. The method used to prepare the specimen for viewing with an electron microscope kills the specimen. Electrons have short wavelengths (shorter than photons) that move best in a vacuum, so living cells cannot be viewed with an electron microscope.

In a scanning electron microscope, a beam of electrons moves back and forth across a cell’s surface, creating details of cell surface characteristics. In a transmission electron microscope, the electron beam penetrates the cell and provides details of a cell’s internal structures. As you might imagine, electron microscopes are significantly more bulky and expensive than light microscopes.

Part a: Salmonella through a light microscope appear as tiny purple dots. Part b: In this scanning electron micrograph, bacteria appear as three-dimensional ovals. The human cells are much larger with a complex, folded appearance. Some of the bacteria lie on the surface of the human cells, and some are squeezed between them.
(a) These Salmonella bacteria appear as tiny purple dots when viewed with a light microscope. (b) This scanning electron microscope micrograph shows Salmonella bacteria (in red) invading human cells (yellow). Even though subfigure (b) shows a different Salmonella specimen than subfigure (a), you can still observe the comparative increase in magnification and detail. (credit a: modification of work by CDC/Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Charles N. Farmer, Rocky Mountain Laboratories; credit b: modification of work by NIAID, NIH; scale-bar data from Matt Russell)

For another perspective on cell size, try the HowBig interactive at this site .

Cell theory

The microscopes we use today are far more complex than those used in the 1600s by Antony van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch shopkeeper who had great skill in crafting lenses. Despite the limitations of his now-ancient lenses, van Leeuwenhoek observed the movements of protista (a type of single-celled organism) and sperm, which he collectively termed “animalcules.”

In a 1665 publication called Micrographia , experimental scientist Robert Hooke coined the term “cell” for the box-like structures he observed when viewing cork tissue through a lens. In the 1670s, van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria and protozoa. Later advances in lenses, microscope construction, and staining techniques enabled other scientists to see some components inside cells.

By the late 1830s, botanist Matthias Schleiden and zoologist Theodor Schwann were studying tissues and proposed the unified cell theory    , which states that all living things are composed of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of life, and new cells arise from existing cells. Rudolf Virchow later made important contributions to this theory.

Career connection


Have you ever heard of a medical test called a Pap smear ( [link] )? In this test, a doctor takes a small sample of cells from the uterine cervix of a patient and sends it to a medical lab where a cytotechnologist stains the cells and examines them for any changes that could indicate cervical cancer or a microbial infection.

Cytotechnologists (cyto- = “cell”) are professionals who study cells via microscopic examinations and other laboratory tests. They are trained to determine which cellular changes are within normal limits and which are abnormal. Their focus is not limited to cervical cells; they study cellular specimens that come from all organs. When they notice abnormalities, they consult a pathologist, who is a medical doctor who can make a clinical diagnosis.

Cytotechnologists play a vital role in saving people’s lives. When abnormalities are discovered early, a patient’s treatment can begin sooner, which usually increases the chances of a successful outcome.

Both normal cells and cells infected with HPV have an irregular, round shape and a well-defined nucleus. Infected cells, however, are two to three times as large as uninfected cells, and some have two nuclei.
These uterine cervix cells, viewed through a light microscope, were obtained from a Pap smear. Normal cells are on the left. The cells on the right are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). Notice that the infected cells are larger; also, two of these cells each have two nuclei instead of one, the normal number. (credit: modification of work by Ed Uthman, MD; scale-bar data from Matt Russell)

Section summary

A cell is the smallest unit of life. Most cells are so tiny that they cannot be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, scientists use microscopes to study cells. Electron microscopes provide higher magnification, higher resolution, and more detail than light microscopes. The unified cell theory states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of life, and new cells arise from existing cells.

Questions & Answers

what do we mean by transgenic organisms?
what is or are the functions of the Islets of Langarhaans
They are the regions of the pancreas that contains the endocrine cell
is the studly of life
Aisha Reply
what is biology
Asunta Reply
what is soil
Mukisa Reply
the top layer of the earth in which plant's, tree's
type of soil
function of cell wall
Nthati Reply
function of cell wall
To protect the cell from bursting
to protect the cell from bursting
What is escherichia coli
Tumise Reply
in what type of cells is meiosis taking place?
Rhyeann Reply
sex cells
reproductive system of earthworm plzz describes
applications of biology
Namawejje Reply
what is dormancy?
Aliyu Reply
hello guys what's the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Nwachukwu Reply
hlo what are the applications of biology?
eukaryotic cells have DNA in their nucleus while prokaryotic cells have their DNA present freely in their cytoplasm.
deviation from mendelian
Ogali Reply
what is lethal allele
Explain how chemical , bioligical and physical interaction between themselves and the non living components ?
Beyan Reply
what is Tissues
Faith Reply
Group of similar cells performing some related functions We have some type of tissues Connective Muscle Epithelial Nervous tissues
group of cells that is called tissue.
tissue is the arrangement or combination of similar cells that perform the same function .
what is abiotic?
Williams Reply
state 2 abiotic factors that affect the rate of transpiration in plants?
non living things
1) temperature:the temperature of the atmosphere affects the opening and closing of the stomata in the leaves of plants .high temperature encourages water loss . 2)wind : air flow encourages transpiration in plants . example,plants that are found on high areas like mountains transpire easily
I agree with Fadilat Muhammad In addition, water plants tend to reserve water during dry seasons so if they are not given plenty of water, they keep the water to them selves
what is a cell
Esther Reply
structural and functional group is called cells
the structural and functional unit of life is called cell. the cell was discovered by Robert hook in 1665Ad.
The structural functional of unit is called cell
The structural and functional unit of cell
Halim I am. A biological cell is the basic unit of life made up of protoplasm, organelles, a mitochondria where ATP, adenosinetriphosphate produces our energy, and a membrane barrier that envelopes the entire cell separating the internal and the external like our epidermis skin.
is isn't the cell
cell is the functional unit or basic unit of life
hello.the cell is defined as the basic structural and functional unit of life.it is responsible for the information and activities of an organism.

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