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 Illustration depicts a mature plant. A runner sprouts from the base of the plant and runs along the ground. A bud and adventitious root system form from the runner.
A stolon, or runner, is a stem that runs along the ground. At the nodes, it forms adventitious roots and buds that grow into a new plant.

Artificial methods of asexual reproduction

These methods are frequently employed to give rise to new, and sometimes novel, plants. They include grafting, cutting, layering, and micropropagation.

Grafting

Grafting has long been used to produce novel varieties of roses, citrus species, and other plants. In grafting    , two plant species are used; part of the stem of the desirable plant is grafted onto a rooted plant called the stock. The part that is grafted or attached is called the scion    . Both are cut at an oblique angle (any angle other than a right angle), placed in close contact with each other, and are then held together [link] . Matching up these two surfaces as closely as possible is extremely important because these will be holding the plant together. The vascular systems of the two plants grow and fuse, forming a graft. After a period of time, the scion starts producing shoots, and eventually starts bearing flowers and fruits. Grafting is widely used in viticulture (grape growing) and the citrus industry. Scions capable of producing a particular fruit variety are grated onto root stock with specific resistance to disease.

 Illustration shows the trunk of a sapling, which has been split. The upper part of a different sapling is wedged into the split and taped so that the two parts can grow together.
Grafting is an artificial method of asexual reproduction used to produce plants combining favorable stem characteristics with favorable root characteristics. The stem of the plant to be grafted is known as the scion, and the root is called the stock.

Cutting

Plants such as coleus and money plant are propagated through stem cuttings , where a portion of the stem containing nodes and internodes is placed in moist soil and allowed to root. In some species, stems can start producing a root even when placed only in water. For example, leaves of the African violet will root if kept in water undisturbed for several weeks.

Layering

Layering is a method in which a stem attached to the plant is bent and covered with soil. Young stems that can be bent easily without any injury are preferred. Jasmine and bougainvillea (paper flower) can be propagated this way [link] . In some plants, a modified form of layering known as air layering is employed. A portion of the bark or outermost covering of the stem is removed and covered with moss, which is then taped. Some gardeners also apply rooting hormone. After some time, roots will appear, and this portion of the plant can be removed and transplanted into a separate pot.

 Illustration shows a plant with a stem that has been bent and buried beneath the soil. A stake holds the end of the stem up so that it can form a new upright plant.
In layering, a part of the stem is buried so that it forms a new plant. (credit: modification of work by Pearson Scott Foresman, donated to the Wikimedia Foundation)

Micropropagation

Micropropagation (also called plant tissue culture) is a method of propagating a large number of plants from a single plant in a short time under laboratory conditions [link] . This method allows propagation of rare, endangered species that may be difficult to grow under natural conditions, are economically important, or are in demand as disease-free plants.

Questions & Answers

I want more mcqs please
Uday Reply
more what?
Everine
what is meant by the term decarboxylation
Lolem
explain the role natural selection in the evolution of organisms
Lolem
the population produces more than What the environment can support. some organisms adapt well to the environment than others. the less adapted ones disappear leaving the more adapted in the environment.
ATIKPO
What are the Advantage of electron microscope over light microscope?
Liticia Reply
an electronic microscope uses electronic so it's more efficient
Cosmas
It helps to view specimen accurately
ATIKPO
what are nymph nodes?
Lydia Reply
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Martin
because the surface tension is tight like a skin
david Reply
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Lydia
what is genetic
Nad Reply
what is écosystème
Nad
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Nad
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Nad
what is écosystème
Nad
discuss adaptations of flight in birds
Cassim Reply
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Joseph Reply
mention two types of metabolic
Joseph
what is a cell?
Joseph
is the biological catalyst that speed up chemical reaction in the living thing
Cassim
an enzymes is a biological catalyst that speed up a chemical reaction in living organisms and it is protein in nature
Idah
enzymes are protein that act as biological catalysts
Maria
what agglutriation
Idah
enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up the chemical reactions in a living organism
Ainamani
what is antecology
Isaac
agglutination is the process by which rhesus factor of blood react during blood transfusion
Paul
Enzymes are biological catalysts, proteins in nature, functioning to increase the rate of chemical reactions and remain unchanged at the end of the reaction.
Everine
Be4 transfusions are performed, a major cross-match made by mixing serum frm the recipient wizblood cells frm the donor.If the types don't match eg if the donor z type A,and recipient z type B,the recipient's antibodies attach 2 the donor's red blood cells and form bridges thatcoz the cells2clump.
Everine
what is photosynthesis
Conast Reply
photosynthesis is the process by which green plants manufacture their own food from water and carbon dioxide using sunlight as a source of their energy releasing oxygen as a by-product.
Everine
what is the function of thé utérus
Nad
what are runners
Godfrey Reply
what is an environment
Bwambale Reply
diagrams are not indicated, why?
Simon Reply
diagrams for what?
Everine
A vaccination is a treatment which makes the body stronger against an infection. The body fights infections using the immune system, which is made up of millions upon millions of cells including T cells and B cells.
Nworie
define the term immunity
Everine
can simply defined as an exemption from an attack
Nworie
is the ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxin by a specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells
Adeb
what is a blood group?
Lydia
A blood group is any different type that human blood can be separated into for medical purposes.
Everine
It is the body ability to resist infection .
ATIKPO
difference between cell and cell membrane
Sunday Reply
cell is a basic unit of living body however cell membrane is a protective layer of cell.
Suhail
very good
Everine
which topic would you like to discuss today?
Everine
vaccine
Nworie
what do you understand by the term vaccine?
Everine
guy I need the answer of this question what occurs during photosynthesis
REAL Reply
Photosynthesis is the process that plants use to convert light into food. During this process, plants create carbohydrates starting with only carbon dioxide and water. Sunlight provides the energy that makes photosynthesis possible.
Stanley
@Stanley,that's how I could as well put it
Evans
what are different between genotype and phenotype
Martha Reply
what is light microscope and electronic microscope
Martha
what occurs during photosynthesis
Martha
what are importance of biology
Martha
what is the meaning of computer science
Martha
genotype is the genetical constitution of the gene
Ainamani
what is ecology
Adeyemo Reply
what is zoology
Adeyemo
zoology branch of biology that study animals
Moses
a branch of biology which deals with the study of animals
Anita

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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