<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Photo A shows a bright red frog sitting on a leaf. Photo B shows a skunk.
(a) The strawberry poison dart frog ( Oophaga pumilio ) uses aposematic coloration to warn predators that it is toxic, while the (b) striped skunk ( Mephitis mephitis ) uses aposematic coloration to warn predators of the unpleasant odor it produces. (credit a: modification of work by Jay Iwasaki; credit b: modification of work by Dan Dzurisin)

While some predators learn to avoid eating certain potential prey because of their coloration, other species have evolved mechanisms to mimic this coloration to avoid being eaten, even though they themselves may not be unpleasant to eat or contain toxic chemicals. In Batesian mimicry    , a harmless species imitates the warning coloration of a harmful one. Assuming they share the same predators, this coloration then protects the harmless ones, even though they do not have the same level of physical or chemical defenses against predation as the organism they mimic. Many insect species mimic the coloration of wasps or bees, which are stinging, venomous insects, thereby discouraging predation ( [link] ).

Photos A and B show virtually identical looking insects. Photos A and B show virtually identical looking insects.
Batesian mimicry occurs when a harmless species mimics the coloration of a harmful species, as is seen with the (a) bumblebee and (b) bee-like robber fly. (credit a, b: modification of work by Cory Zanker)

In Müllerian mimicry    , multiple species share the same warning coloration, but all of them actually have defenses. [link] shows a variety of foul-tasting butterflies with similar coloration. In Emsleyan/Mertensian mimicry    , a deadly prey mimics a less dangerous one, such as the venomous coral snake mimicking the non-venomous milk snake. This type of mimicry is extremely rare and more difficult to understand than the previous two types. For this type of mimicry to work, it is essential that eating the milk snake has unpleasant but not fatal consequences. Then, these predators learn not to eat snakes with this coloration, protecting the coral snake as well. If the snake were fatal to the predator, there would be no opportunity for the predator to learn not to eat it, and the benefit for the less toxic species would disappear.

Photos show four pairs of butterflies that are virtually identical to one another in color and banding pattern.
Several unpleasant-tasting Heliconius butterfly species share a similar color pattern with better-tasting varieties, an example of Müllerian mimicry. (credit: Joron M, Papa R, Beltrán M, Chamberlain N, Mavárez J, et al.)

Go to this website to view stunning examples of mimicry.

Competitive exclusion principle

Resources are often limited within a habitat and multiple species may compete to obtain them. All species have an ecological niche in the ecosystem, which describes how they acquire the resources they need and how they interact with other species in the community. The competitive exclusion principle    states that two species cannot occupy the same niche in a habitat. In other words, different species cannot coexist in a community if they are competing for all the same resources. An example of this principle is shown in [link] , with two protozoan species, Paramecium aurelia and Paramecium caudatum . When grown individually in the laboratory, they both thrive. But when they are placed together in the same test tube (habitat), P. aurelia outcompetes P. caudatum for food, leading to the latter’s eventual extinction.

Questions & Answers

what is genetic engineering
Mavis Reply
what are the three main type of ecosystem
Mavis
biosphere,
Bigenis
what is mitochondria
Might Reply
please what's genetics erngee
Abanke Reply
what is genetic engineering
Eveline Reply
what is the meaning of term mitosis
Lwitiko Reply
outline the significance of mitosis to organisms
Lwitiko
significant of meiosis are to increase in variation and leads to the formation of haploid gamete
Eveline
thanks
Abanke
name the resources to be conserved
Oreva Reply
define natural resources
Oreva
name the agencies responsible for the conservation of natural resources
Oreva
land,water,forests,
Kiiza
nema,uwa
Kiiza
wassup guyz
Peace
land ,water
Erika
Good Land and Water
garnhial
food, fish, livelihoods,forest, land and water
garnhial
explain the importance of carbon dioxide in the body
Kiiza Reply
how does that works
SAMUEL
diagram of Prokaryotic cells
Magreth Reply
where is it?
Yazi
ʜɪ
Malikie
ʜɪ
Malikie
where is the diagram?
Yazi
waiting.....
Yazi
what
Malikie
good morning guyz
Joelia
gd morning
Hannalyn
morning how are u doing
Paul
doing all fyn en u
Joelia
👍👍👍
Gruxz
morning everyone.. by is Grace we have be saved... Ephesians 2:8....
Cosmo
hi
Kisa
hey guys am new
Ellie
u a most wlcm
Joelia
🍑🐕
Ken
Hello guys im new
Sulaiman
u are welcome
Peace
thanks
Ellie
..amitabatha..
Ken
He guys happy New month
Peace
hello everyone,I'm new here!!
Reine
welcome
James
thanks so much!!
Reine
how re u Reine Balla
James
Happy New mnth to guys
Peace
HAPPY new month to u
James
Thanks and same to u
Peace
welcome one more peace
James
hi guys
Tafadzwa
Define the term Biology element atom
James
my name is rons am asking the question what is blood compatibility
Rons
Do you really no the one you text with.
Israel
I'm fine James, just boredom want to finish me!!
Reine
what is a cell of a bacteria called
Sahfe Reply
what is genotype
James
genotype: this is the combination of alleles an organism has for a given characteristic..
Cosmo
what is maiotic
Gabriel Reply
what is sexual reproduction
Gabriel
what are the effects of concentration gradient in the uptake of water by plant's
Harleen Reply
ls it ok if you have sex during pregnancy
Kags Reply
no
Bernard
yes!!!
Yazi
Yes
Babie
hello
Cabdi
Babie Maseuse .. Hello .. how are you ?
kf
yes it make the baby's strength stay longer
REAL
Who are you?
Babie
why not it's nicer and more enjoyable more than ok for the woman
Lamin
danso from the Gambia and you why do you ask
Lamin
as long as the woman is comfortable and in any possible position good for her
Lamin
unless medically advised to stop or hault and those conditions are also applicable to certain problem in pregancies. Pls any further comment pls never hesitate to ask
Lamin
how tell us
Tony
an assignment for you pls
Lamin
it's recommended
Nyakato
Hello
george
hi how are you?
Lamin
Fine
george
hello everyone
Cosmo
Good night to everyone am from Zambia may the Grace of the Lord be with you all
Cosmo
u too hv gd dreams
Joelia
thanks colleagues and wish you all the best insha Allah
Lamin
InshaAllah
Joelia
Marsha Allah
Lamin
yes
James
What is the meaning of organ
Ronald Reply
tissue combined to form organ
zameer
join
Elishs
orga- these are tissues join together to perform a specific functions.
Elishs
then what are tissues
Kags
group of cells working together to perform a particular function
Harleen
tissue are group of cells put together to perform a certain goal
Bernard
What will happen when read blood cell placed in 0.5 % Nacl solution
zameer Reply
what is biology
Tariro Reply
biology is the study of living organisms
Bernard
examply is the study of.
Nantamu
biology is the study of life.
Nantamu
biology is the study of living things
Lwitiko

Get the best Biology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Biology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask