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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Classify the different types of joints on the basis of structure
  • Explain the role of joints in skeletal movement

The point at which two or more bones meet is called a joint    , or articulation    . Joints are responsible for movement, such as the movement of limbs, and stability, such as the stability found in the bones of the skull.

Classification of joints on the basis of structure

There are two ways to classify joints: on the basis of their structure or on the basis of their function. The structural classification divides joints into bony, fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints depending on the material composing the joint and the presence or absence of a cavity in the joint.

Fibrous joints

The bones of fibrous joints are held together by fibrous connective tissue. There is no cavity, or space, present between the bones and so most fibrous joints do not move at all, or are only capable of minor movements. There are three types of fibrous joints: sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses. Sutures are found only in the skull and possess short fibers of connective tissue that hold the skull bones tightly in place ( [link] ).

Illustration shows sutures that knit the back part of the skull together with the front and lower parts.
Sutures are fibrous joints found only in the skull.

Syndesmoses are joints in which the bones are connected by a band of connective tissue, allowing for more movement than in a suture. An example of a syndesmosis is the joint of the tibia and fibula in the ankle. The amount of movement in these types of joints is determined by the length of the connective tissue fibers. Gomphoses occur between teeth and their sockets; the term refers to the way the tooth fits into the socket like a peg ( [link] ). The tooth is connected to the socket by a connective tissue referred to as the periodontal ligament.

Illustration shows a gomphosis connecting a tooth to the jaw. The gomphoses have a porous appearance.
Gomphoses are fibrous joints between the teeth and their sockets. (credit: modification of work by Gray's Anatomy)

Cartilaginous joints

Cartilaginous joints are joints in which the bones are connected by cartilage. There are two types of cartilaginous joints: synchondroses and symphyses. In a synchondrosis    , the bones are joined by hyaline cartilage. Synchondroses are found in the epiphyseal plates of growing bones in children. In symphyses , hyaline cartilage covers the end of the bone but the connection between bones occurs through fibrocartilage. Symphyses are found at the joints between vertebrae. Either type of cartilaginous joint allows for very little movement.

Synovial joints

Synovial joints are the only joints that have a space between the adjoining bones ( [link] ). This space is referred to as the synovial (or joint) cavity and is filled with synovial fluid. Synovial fluid lubricates the joint, reducing friction between the bones and allowing for greater movement. The ends of the bones are covered with articular cartilage, a hyaline cartilage, and the entire joint is surrounded by an articular capsule composed of connective tissue that allows movement of the joint while resisting dislocation. Articular capsules may also possess ligaments that hold the bones together. Synovial joints are capable of the greatest movement of the three structural joint types; however, the more mobile a joint, the weaker the joint. Knees, elbows, and shoulders are examples of synovial joints.

Questions & Answers

prove starch in a mango leaf
Ruth Reply
prove starch in a leaf
Ruth
draw and name the plant cell
Nalongo
wat is classification
Nalongo
levels of classification
Nalongo
classification of what
Ezenwa
Identify the caste of termites or Honey bees
Mensah Reply
Soldier Winged reproductive Worker King and queen
Franklina
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Jackson Reply
biology is a study of living organism
Brilliant
what is the myelin sheath?
description on how an enzyme such as pepsin breaks down a substrate
linister Reply
what is biology
Kanzy Reply
study of life
Tufail
the study of life..meaning studying all aspects of life in humans,animals and everything inside the global
Nalukui
study of life
Memory
is the branch of science which deal with the study of living and non living things
David
Is the study of living organisms or living things
Franklina
draw the taxonomic hierarchy of classification
KC Reply
Kingdom Class Order Family Genus Species
Franklina
explain the following bush burning, deforestation, over grazing
Thomas Reply
what is biodiversity
Tracy
No idea
nana
Please what are alleles
nana
Deforestation: this is the cutting down of trees without planting new ones
Brilliant
over grazing is the continuously planting of crops in one particular land.
Friday
what is afforestation
Friday
Bush burning is the removal of the natural vegetation cover, that protects the soil surface through the use of fire. Deforestation is the actor process of establishing a forest especially on land not previously forested.
Franklina
Over grazing is the practice of grazing toi many livestock for too long a period on a land unable to recover its vegetation.
Franklina
what is physiology
Joseph Reply
the study of physical things
Nalukui
dealing with those things which you can see by your neck eyes
Odwa
Further explanation please
nana
the study of things tt interact with time,energy
David
Is the scientific study of chemistry and physics of the structure of the body
Franklina
can a lactating mother get pregnant
Elias Reply
what is cell
Deng Reply
the basic building blocks of all living matter...
Izzati
cell is a basic unit of life
MAI
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David
Cell is a basic unit of life
Malekhotla
A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life
Franklina
A cell is the basic unit of life,it include both plant and animals need a cell
Thomas
what's microscope
Emmanuel Reply
is any instrument that use to wiew or to see the small object that you can't see with our naked eye
MR
is any instrument used to magnifie small object
Memory
Is an instrument that produces an enlarged image of an object or specimen that is too small to be seen with our naked eye
Franklina
what is the function of the spinal cord
Gaone Reply
For responsible of movement and sensation
Franklina
A cell is the structural and fictional unit of life
Evelyn Reply
what is tidal volume
Erick
tidal volume is the volume of each breath measured during inspiration or expiration or averged for the entire respiratory cycle
Gaone
Give function of the long strands of slippery or jelly like substance in eggs of the amphibians in water ?
Erick
the long strands of slippery or jelly like substance him eggs of amphibians in water helps in keeping the eggs moist and protection from predators
Gaone
sorry not him in
Gaone
what's is microscope
Emmanuel
How do bacteria useful?
Bisirikirwa
how can plant feed other animals
Nana Reply
After the animals has death and decayed then the plant used the nutrients to manufacture there food.
Yusuf
Plants and animals depends on each other. Meaning, plants help animals with greens and fruits or vegetables while animals provides nutrients when dead and decayed. Therefore,as you see the food web and food chain, you'll have more.
Jairenaririko

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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