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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction
  • Discuss asexual reproduction methods
  • Discuss sexual reproduction methods

Animals produce offspring through asexual and/or sexual reproduction. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. Asexual reproduction produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent because the offspring are all clones of the original parent. A single individual can produce offspring asexually and large numbers of offspring can be produced quickly. In a stable or predictable environment, asexual reproduction is an effective means of reproduction because all the offspring will be adapted to that environment. In an unstable or unpredictable environment asexually-reproducing species may be at a disadvantage because all the offspring are genetically identical and may not have the genetic variation to survive in new or different conditions. On the other hand, the rapid rates of asexual reproduction may allow for a speedy response to environmental changes if individuals have mutations. An additional advantage of asexual reproduction is that colonization of new habitats may be easier when an individual does not need to find a mate to reproduce.

During sexual reproduction    the genetic material of two individuals is combined to produce genetically diverse offspring that differ from their parents. The genetic diversity of sexually produced offspring is thought to give species a better chance of surviving in an unpredictable or changing environment. Species that reproduce sexually must maintain two different types of individuals, males and females, which can limit the ability to colonize new habitats as both sexes must be present.

Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction occurs in prokaryotic microorganisms (bacteria) and in some eukaryotic single-celled and multi-celled organisms. There are a number of ways that animals reproduce asexually.

Fission

Fission , also called binary fission, occurs in prokaryotic microorganisms and in some invertebrate, multi-celled organisms. After a period of growth, an organism splits into two separate organisms. Some unicellular eukaryotic organisms undergo binary fission by mitosis. In other organisms, part of the individual separates and forms a second individual. This process occurs, for example, in many asteroid echinoderms through splitting of the central disk. Some sea anemones and some coral polyps ( [link] ) also reproduce through fission.

 Image shows many coral polyps clustered together. Each Polyp is cup-shaped, with tentacles radiating out from the rim.
Coral polyps reproduce asexually by fission. (credit: G. P. Schmahl, NOAA FGBNMS Manager)

Budding

Budding is a form of asexual reproduction that results from the outgrowth of a part of a cell or body region leading to a separation from the original organism into two individuals. Budding occurs commonly in some invertebrate animals such as corals and hydras. In hydras, a bud forms that develops into an adult and breaks away from the main body, as illustrated in [link] , whereas in coral budding, the bud does not detach and multiplies as part of a new colony.

Questions & Answers

wat is Metamorphosis
Lawal Reply
when the chromosomes aling in the middle during mitosis
Lissette
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EVANS Reply
Is talking about the little study out of chemistry
LEKAN
Is talking about the little study out of chemistry
LEKAN
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Awamalego Reply
How many cells does human being have?
Karikari
How many cells does human being have?
Karikari
countless cells
Imamkasim
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Julien Reply
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lo
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Sarpz Reply
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chiluba
In a lay man definition biology talks about life as a whole
VICTOR
the study of living organisms
the study of the structure, function, and origin of living organisms
biology has many branches. Botany (the study of plants) , evolution,. Ecology (how animals interact amongst each other. the study the habitat of an animal and try to determine as well as find strategies to prevent a species from going extinct.
is simply the study of life
Namuli
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Twinkl Reply
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Twinkl
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Twinkl
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Twinkl
how does selective breeding increase crop size
Twinkl
wat is an animal cell
Monicah Reply
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breathing in reptiles
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Ghulam Reply
human
Haggai
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Patrick Reply
nutrients is substance which body use in terms of need
Haggai
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Abdullahi
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Osei
substance that provides nourishment essential for the maintenance of life and for growth.
umar
right same answer as you Umar
Namuli
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Namuli
Any material that provide essential components for cell metabolisms is nutrient
Mahmood
what are the types of skeleton
Tanyi Reply
endo skeleton and exo skeleton
Faith
or types of skeletons There is exo skeleton found in class insecta Exo skeleton found in phylum chordata and lastly hydrostatic skeleton found mainly in earth worms
Daniel
and hydrostatic skeleton
Godbless
bronah
Kapoko
endo, exo and hydrostatic skeleton
Mico
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Jerson Reply
life is when any living thing breath or respirate.
Lucky
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Yahaya
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give an example of a phylum where all members have open circulatory
Omoro Reply
anthropoda
Daniel
phylum Anthropoda
Daniel
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Maggie
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create employment
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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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