<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction
  • Discuss asexual reproduction methods
  • Discuss sexual reproduction methods

Animals produce offspring through asexual and/or sexual reproduction. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. Asexual reproduction produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent because the offspring are all clones of the original parent. A single individual can produce offspring asexually and large numbers of offspring can be produced quickly. In a stable or predictable environment, asexual reproduction is an effective means of reproduction because all the offspring will be adapted to that environment. In an unstable or unpredictable environment asexually-reproducing species may be at a disadvantage because all the offspring are genetically identical and may not have the genetic variation to survive in new or different conditions. On the other hand, the rapid rates of asexual reproduction may allow for a speedy response to environmental changes if individuals have mutations. An additional advantage of asexual reproduction is that colonization of new habitats may be easier when an individual does not need to find a mate to reproduce.

During sexual reproduction    the genetic material of two individuals is combined to produce genetically diverse offspring that differ from their parents. The genetic diversity of sexually produced offspring is thought to give species a better chance of surviving in an unpredictable or changing environment. Species that reproduce sexually must maintain two different types of individuals, males and females, which can limit the ability to colonize new habitats as both sexes must be present.

Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction occurs in prokaryotic microorganisms (bacteria) and in some eukaryotic single-celled and multi-celled organisms. There are a number of ways that animals reproduce asexually.


Fission , also called binary fission, occurs in prokaryotic microorganisms and in some invertebrate, multi-celled organisms. After a period of growth, an organism splits into two separate organisms. Some unicellular eukaryotic organisms undergo binary fission by mitosis. In other organisms, part of the individual separates and forms a second individual. This process occurs, for example, in many asteroid echinoderms through splitting of the central disk. Some sea anemones and some coral polyps ( [link] ) also reproduce through fission.

 Image shows many coral polyps clustered together. Each Polyp is cup-shaped, with tentacles radiating out from the rim.
Coral polyps reproduce asexually by fission. (credit: G. P. Schmahl, NOAA FGBNMS Manager)


Budding is a form of asexual reproduction that results from the outgrowth of a part of a cell or body region leading to a separation from the original organism into two individuals. Budding occurs commonly in some invertebrate animals such as corals and hydras. In hydras, a bud forms that develops into an adult and breaks away from the main body, as illustrated in [link] , whereas in coral budding, the bud does not detach and multiplies as part of a new colony.

Questions & Answers

what is a base?
Alice Reply
base can be define as the anatomy of structure
what are somatic cells
KAKU Reply
Somatic cells responsible for making the body
vegetative cells, they divide by mitosis.
what is angiosperms
Papillon Reply
what is the function of bile
what is neurologist
Benjamin Reply
what is a cell
God Reply
is a basic unit of living organism
or a basic building blocks of all living things
explain cell biology
Grace Reply
cell biology is a biology branch which study about function,size,definition ,....of cells.
what are endotherms
angelina Reply
pls can someone elaborate more on biomagnification
Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is any concentration of a toxin, such as pesticides, in the tissues of tolerant organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.
An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat.
these are substances that absorbs heat energy
What diffusion
Oseres Reply
it is the movement of water molecules from the region of higher concentretion to a region of lower concentration
is the movement of anything from region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
is a movemnt of H2O molecule from a region of higher concentration to the legion of lower Concentration.
diffusion is the movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration resulting into an even distribution
pls I don't know how to read very well so how can I understand all this
Mercy Reply
What's succession
Talabi Reply
an acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution
angelina Reply
how? give a reason to support ur answer
Types of acids and there definitions
what is acid
asaa Reply
An acid is a substance which gives Hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions.
food poison
an acid is a chemical substance that produces or gives out hydrogen ions as the only positively charged ion when dissolved in water
the difference between prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells
Itz Reply
karyon is nucles eukaryotes have intact membrane around its nucleus, whereas prokaryotes don't have nuclear membrane and other membrane bounded organelles
what is the function of chyme
Divine Reply
what makes a tissue
tell me
chyme where digested food passes from e stomach through e pyloric sphincter in 2 e duodenum.
what is an osmosis
tell me the answer
Osmosis is the movement of the water molecules through a semipermiable membrane from lower to higher concentrated solution.
is the movement of water molecules from the area of high concentration to the area of low concentration through a semi permeable membrane.
what is hypertonic solution
A solution having more solute concentration as compared to a cell which is in place, results shrinkage of cell.
what is water potential
uses of Osmosis
osmosis is the movement of water molecules from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration tthrough a selective permaeble membrane

Get the best Biology course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Biology' conversation and receive update notifications?