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 Photo A shows an A. afarensis skull, which is similar in shape but the forehead slopes back and the jaw juts out. Photo A shows a human skull.
The skull of (a) Australopithecus afarensis , an early hominid that lived between two and three million years ago, resembled that of (b) modern humans but was smaller with a sloped forehead and prominent jaw.
Partial skeleton is human-like but child-sized.
This adult female Australopithecus afarensis skeleton, nicknamed Lucy, was discovered in the mid 1970s. (credit: “120”/Wikimedia Commons)

Australopithecus africanus lived between 2 and 3 million years ago. It had a slender build and was bipedal, but had robust arm bones and, like other early hominids, may have spent significant time in trees. Its brain was larger than that of A . afarensis at 500 cubic centimeters, which is slightly less than one-third the size of modern human brains. Two other species, Australopithecus bahrelghazali and Australopithecus garhi , have been added to the roster of australopiths in recent years.

A dead end: genus Paranthropus

The australopiths had a relatively slender build and teeth that were suited for soft food. In the past several years, fossils of hominids of a different body type have been found and dated to approximately 2.5 million years ago. These hominids, of the genus Paranthropus , were relatively large and had large grinding teeth. Their molars showed heavy wear, suggesting that they had a coarse and fibrous vegetarian diet as opposed to the partially carnivorous diet of the australopiths. Paranthropus includes Paranthropus robustus of South Africa, and Paranthropus aethiopicus and Paranthropus boisei of East Africa. The hominids in this genus went extinct more than 1 million years ago and are not thought to be ancestral to modern humans, but rather members of an evolutionary branch on the hominin tree that left no descendants.

Early hominins: genus Homo

The human genus, Homo , first appeared between 2.5 and 3 million years ago. For many years, fossils of a species called H . habilis were the oldest examples in the genus Homo , but in 2010, a new species called Homo gautengensis was discovered and may be older. Compared to A . africanus , H . habilis had a number of features more similar to modern humans. H . habilis had a jaw that was less prognathic than the australopiths and a larger brain, at 600–750 cubic centimeters. However, H . habilis retained some features of older hominin species, such as long arms. The name H . habilis means “handy man,” which is a reference to the stone tools that have been found with its remains.

Visit this site for a video about Smithsonian paleontologist Briana Pobiner explaining the link between hominin eating of meat and evolutionary trends.

H . erectus appeared approximately 1.8 million years ago ( [link] ). It is believed to have originated in East Africa and was the first hominin species to migrate out of Africa. Fossils of H . erectus have been found in India, China, Java, and Europe, and were known in the past as “Java Man” or “Peking Man.” H . erectus had a number of features that were more similar to modern humans than those of H . habilis . H . erectus was larger in size than earlier hominins, reaching heights up to 1.85 meters and weighing up to 65 kilograms, which are sizes similar to those of modern humans. Its degree of sexual dimorphism was less than earlier species, with males being 20 to 30 percent larger than females, which is close to the size difference seen in our species. H . erectus had a larger brain than earlier species at 775–1,100 cubic centimeters, which compares to the 1,130–1,260 cubic centimeters seen in modern human brains. H . erectus also had a nose with downward-facing nostrils similar to modern humans, rather than the forward facing nostrils found in other primates. Longer, downward-facing nostrils allow for the warming of cold air before it enters the lungs and may have been an adaptation to colder climates. Artifacts found with fossils of H . erectus suggest that it was the first hominin to use fire, hunt, and have a home base. H . erectus is generally thought to have lived until about 50,000 years ago.

Questions & Answers

what is reproduction
smart Reply
it is d act of bringing young ones to life
Oyebanji
to ensure survival of a species🚴‍♀️
Michelle
what is a genotype
Collins
what is hazardous
smart
a cell is the smallest unit of a living thing. so we all have cell
smart
It is the formation of a zygote resulting from the fusion of the sperm cell with the ovum.Thus,this results in the production of new species which are genetically dissimilar from their parent cells.
Pallavi
what is size of cell
Mohd Reply
what is size of Hart
Mohd
nanometers=um sign thingie
Michelle
microns=nanometers
Michelle
monomers and polymers of nucleic acids?
Jyrl Reply
dna and rna involvement
Michelle
give me the elements of the soil
Iguma Reply
Air, water, organic matter, inorganic matter
Tshwano
soil water humus air
Veronicah
yap
Beloved
silica, iron
Patience
potassium, sulfur, calcium, carbon
Michelle
what is cell
iyaji Reply
A cell is a smallest fundamental unit of a living organisms.
Kem
the basic structural and functional unit of life
Patience
what is size of cell
Mohd
all things are made up of.....all things cannot exist without pre-exisiting cells...check out the 16th ce tury to learn more about microscope use and cells. i will give a hint: Mr. L.
Michelle
we are all made of cells
Michelle
Nutrition - sensitive intervention
Therowda Reply
what does the sori In fern mean
arhin Reply
biology is the study .exactly what is life?
Jerry
i'm sorry , the study of life
Jerry
how can U identify a person through his blood
Frankyx Reply
through genetic fingerprinting where specific DNA sequences in a person genome can be identified.
Pallavi
by help of genetics and DNA test
Meerbadini
can it also be detected using an RNA test
Frankyx
environmental biology
Ojesola Reply
what is phytoplankton
Ojesola
What is anabolism
Treasure Reply
the break down of substance
Aunty
how many teeth has an adult person
TSEGAY Reply
36
Treasure
32
Favour
32
Kamaluddeen
32 teeth
Meerbadini
32
OLAMIDE
32 (or 36 including the wisdom teeth)
Hailey
32
Sani
26?🤓
Michelle
what is homoestastis
Ayo Reply
hypothalamus negative feedback vs. postive feedback systems.
Michelle
it is the maintenance of a steady internal environment.it is controlled largely by the brain especially the hypothalamus.
Oyebanji
What is a cell
Eric Reply
A cell is the building block of all organisms
Millicent
yes it is , it also helps in functions .
Joezman
cell is structural & functional unit of oraganisms
Meerbadini
it is a building blocks of a living organism
Joezman
it is the basic unit of life in living organisms
Nabwonso
it is the basic unite of life in living organisms
Nabwonso
it is the fundamental unit of life
Adewoye
it is the structural and functional unit of life
Ojesola
Why cells are classify as living and non living things
Millicent Reply
due to such as virus which acts as a living cell inside the cell of an organisms and out side of cell in form of crystals
Meerbadini
because there are living cells which performs complex processes such as reproduction and metabolism then there are dead cells like the top most part of the epidermis or the bark
irish
because there are living cells which performs complex function such as reproduction and metabolism
David
cause otherwise you could call fire alive
Marissa
what's nomenclature
Joseph Reply
assigning scientific name to organism
Azmat
yes, the genius name, and the species name
Justice
it is a scientific naming of organism
Meerbadini

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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