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Aggressive displays are also common in the animal kingdom. An example is when a dog bares its teeth when it wants another dog to back down. Presumably, these displays communicate not only the willingness of the animal to fight, but also its fighting ability. Although these displays do signal aggression on the part of the sender, it is thought that these displays are actually a mechanism to reduce the amount of actual fighting that occurs between members of the same species: they allow individuals to assess the fighting ability of their opponent and thus decide whether it is “worth the fight.” The testing of certain hypotheses using game theory has led to the conclusion that some of these displays may overstate an animal’s actual fighting ability and are used to “bluff” the opponent. This type of interaction, even if “dishonest,” would be favored by natural selection if it is successful more times than not.

Photo shows a stork sitting on a nest, flapping its wings.
This stork’s courtship display is designed to attract potential mates. (credit: Linda “jinterwas”/Flickr)

Distraction displays are seen in birds and some fish. They are designed to attract a predator away from the nest that contains their young. This is an example of an altruistic behavior: it benefits the young more than the individual performing the display, which is putting itself at risk by doing so.

Many animals, especially primates, communicate with other members in the group through touch. Activities such as grooming, touching the shoulder or root of the tail, embracing, lip contact, and greeting ceremonies have all been observed in the Indian langur, an Old World monkey. Similar behaviors are found in other primates, especially in the great apes.

The killdeer bird distracts predators from its eggs by faking a broken wing display in this video taken in Boise, Idaho.

Altruistic behaviors

Behaviors that lower the fitness of the individual but increase the fitness of another individual are termed altruistic. Examples of such behaviors are seen widely across the animal kingdom. Social insects such as worker bees have no ability to reproduce, yet they maintain the queen so she can populate the hive with her offspring. Meerkats keep a sentry standing guard to warn the rest of the colony about intruders, even though the sentry is putting itself at risk. Wolves and wild dogs bring meat to pack members not present during a hunt. Lemurs take care of infants unrelated to them. Although on the surface, these behaviors appear to be altruistic, it may not be so simple.

There has been much discussion over why altruistic behaviors exist. Do these behaviors lead to overall evolutionary advantages for their species? Do they help the altruistic individual pass on its own genes? And what about such activities between unrelated individuals? One explanation for altruistic-type behaviors is found in the genetics of natural selection. In the 1976 book, The Selfish Gene, scientist Richard Dawkins attempted to explain many seemingly altruistic behaviors from the viewpoint of the gene itself. Although a gene obviously cannot be selfish in the human sense, it may appear that way if the sacrifice of an individual benefits related individuals that share genes that are identical by descent (present in relatives because of common lineage). Mammal parents make this sacrifice to take care of their offspring. Emperor penguins migrate miles in harsh conditions to bring food back for their young. Selfish gene theory has been controversial over the years and is still discussed among scientists in related fields.

Questions & Answers

Hello how are you every body
Sitali Reply
join the conversation
Sitali
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Memiru
I'm very fine_hopefully everyone is fine
Rorisang
what is meant by submicroscopic?
anji Reply
what is anabolic and catabolic
Jonathan
hi
Alpha
hi berther
Memiru
hallo
Memiru
what is the meaning of biology
Dorathy Reply
biology is scientific study of living things
GUYO
what is chromosomes?
Mabiya Reply
it is a cell structure that contains DNA histones protein and other structural proteins
Ekechi
what is DNA
Kashah
what is liver
Hassan Reply
liver is an organ in the body that meterbolise nutrients and produce bile.
Ekechi
what is the function of granum?
Gulfam
what is the faction of liver cancer
Kashah
What is biology
Eric Reply
Biology is you
muayad
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and. evolution
Suzette
biology is the study of living things and none living things
Ekechi
study of living organisms
anji
The mamalian endoskeleton has 206 bones
kaazim Reply
hii
Hannah
hi
Suzette
how you
Hannah
good thanks
Suzette
have you done the actual course?
Suzette
How many bones do human body have?
moses Reply
I don't know please help me
Kisito
206
Waneh
206
Moses
206
anji
what are these geneti materials
ONELIA Reply
Name five parts of female reproductive system and state the function of each part
Angel Reply
What is biology
Angel
What is biology
Angel
biology is the study of all living organisms
ketchem
Ok
Angel
Name five parts of female reproductive system and state the function of each part
Angel
What is the meaning of respiration
Idriss Reply
the act or process of breathing .
Suzette
the process is very long as I know
Idriss
do you want more details ?
Suzette
yes offcourse
Smiso
what does the term diploid and haploid mean?
ONELIA
what is virgina
Shebas Reply
A female reproductive organs
Julius
fuvu LA binadam linamifupa mingapi?
Hamis Reply
explain dicot n monocot plant
Henry Reply
Di= 2cotiledon mono=cotiledon
muayad
Mono = 1 cotiledon
muayad
what is virginia
Shebas
A Virginia is a part of a female ,the passage of a child during child birth, receiver of the penis and the passage of menstral flow
Idriss
what is biology
Hassan Reply
what is liver
Hassan
Biology is the study of living organisms
Gifty
is the study of life of living organisms
Chansa
study all about organisms like their reproduction, evolution , behaviour Physiology, etc
Ubaid
this is what we call "life"@
Chansa
is the study of living organisms on earth
okubasu
It is the study of living organism
Idriss
Biology is the study of all living organisms
ketchem
what is copulation
ketchem

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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