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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Define biogeography
  • List and describe abiotic factors that affect the global distribution of plant and animal species
  • Compare the impact of abiotic forces on aquatic and terrestrial environments
  • Summarize the affect of abiotic factors on net primary productivity

Many forces influence the communities of living organisms present in different parts of the biosphere (all of the parts of Earth inhabited by life). The biosphere extends into the atmosphere (several kilometers above Earth) and into the depths of the oceans. Despite its apparent vastness to an individual human, the biosphere occupies only a minute space when compared to the known universe. Many abiotic forces influence where life can exist and the types of organisms found in different parts of the biosphere. The abiotic factors influence the distribution of biomes : large areas of land with similar climate, flora, and fauna.

Biogeography

Biogeography is the study of the geographic distribution of living things and the abiotic factors that affect their distribution. Abiotic factors such as temperature and rainfall vary based mainly on latitude and elevation. As these abiotic factors change, the composition of plant and animal communities also changes. For example, if you were to begin a journey at the equator and walk north, you would notice gradual changes in plant communities. At the beginning of your journey, you would see tropical wet forests with broad-leaved evergreen trees, which are characteristic of plant communities found near the equator. As you continued to travel north, you would see these broad-leaved evergreen plants eventually give rise to seasonally dry forests with scattered trees. You would also begin to notice changes in temperature and moisture. At about 30 degrees north, these forests would give way to deserts, which are characterized by low precipitation.

Moving farther north, you would see that deserts are replaced by grasslands or prairies. Eventually, grasslands are replaced by deciduous temperate forests. These deciduous forests give way to the boreal forests found in the subarctic, the area south of the Arctic Circle. Finally, you would reach the Arctic tundra, which is found at the most northern latitudes. This trek north reveals gradual changes in both climate and the types of organisms that have adapted to environmental factors associated with ecosystems found at different latitudes. However, different ecosystems exist at the same latitude due in part to abiotic factors such as jet streams, the Gulf Stream, and ocean currents. If you were to hike up a mountain, the changes you would see in the vegetation would parallel those as you move to higher latitudes.

Ecologists who study biogeography examine patterns of species distribution. No species exists everywhere; for example, the Venus flytrap is endemic to a small area in North and South Carolina. An endemic    species is one which is naturally found only in a specific geographic area that is usually restricted in size. Other species are generalists: species which live in a wide variety of geographic areas; the raccoon, for example, is native to most of North and Central America.

Questions & Answers

Parkinson's disease is a caused by the degeneration of neurons that release
birabwa Reply
why is it so hard to get to the questions
Eric Reply
why is it so hard to get to questions?
Eric
what types of proteins which are found in hair,hooves and tendons?
Kapalu Reply
what is blood cells
Isaac Reply
It's cells of the blood
Kaique
can biology be also be define has a scientific study that deal with life?
Stanley Reply
do you care asking you a question
Afolayan Reply
name the gas that diffuses into the plants leaves on a bright, sunny day
Tuhemwe Reply
explain why this gas diffuses into the plant's leaves
Tuhemwe
name two gases that diffuses out of the plant's leaves on a bright sunny day
Tuhemwe
Biology olympaid
Khan
what is ecosystem
Rondy Reply
why does a car move yet it is not a living thing?
Sserujja
this is because of the engine and fuel placed on
Gift
I also think it because force has been apply to it.
Stanley
It is aplace where organísms live and associate with each other.
Nasib
what is the reason of swelling due to fracture
Ejaz Reply
Sngy alaka
Khan
how do animals reproduce
Kelvin Reply
be specific because there are so many types of animals and how they reproduce are different
Sheillah
yeah
Chinwendu
just be specific with a particular animal
Stanley
what happens when you sneeze
Asuquo Reply
The sneeze center sends out a signal to tightly close your throat, eyes and mouth. Your chest muscles contract and compress your lungs while your throat muscles relax. All of that means air, saliva and mucus is forced out of your nose and mouth. AAAAAHHHH-CHOOOO.
Hassan
how are you
Ayouba
hy
Ejaz
hii
Ishitha
hello
mahesha
Hello
Madu
Am fine
Abavon
how far
Abavon
hello
Sheillah
with why
Sheillah
with what
Sheillah
I have a question plzz
Sheillah
what is globsl warming
Rondy
Global warming is the overall rise in temperature of the Earth itself which is caused by multiple factors. Such factors include: greenhouse gases, the burning of fossil fuels and other forms of human activity.
Maryam
It's overall effects are known as climate change.
Maryam
thanks
Rondy
good
Haider
No problem.
Maryam
Thank you.
Maryam
what is creatinine?
Haider
Creatinine is a waste product produced in the body during muscle metabolism. This waste product is expelled from the body through urine. Here is it's formula:  C4H7N3O
Maryam
Formula: C4H7N3O
Maryam
ok
Haider
ok
Stephen
Outline the process of cell in the body interms of it's function.
Aliruku Reply
what communication method used mainly by plants
Jerda Reply
what is biology
james Reply
Biology is the study of life
Omoloju
yah
John
Biology is natural science that studies life and living orgasms.
Hilda
any questions from colleague
Sheillah
define nerve impulse
Karlin Reply
A nerve impulse is the way nerve cells (neurons) communicate with one another. Nerve impulsesare mostly electrical signals along the dendrites to produce a nerve impulse or action potential. The action potential is the result of ions moving in and out of the cell.
Sam

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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