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Not all organisms use hemoglobin as the method of oxygen transport. Invertebrates that utilize hemolymph rather than blood use different pigments to bind to the oxygen. These pigments use copper or iron to the oxygen. Invertebrates have a variety of other respiratory pigments. Hemocyanin, a blue-green, copper-containing protein, illustrated in [link] b is found in mollusks, crustaceans, and some of the arthropods. Chlorocruorin, a green-colored, iron-containing pigment is found in four families of polychaete tubeworms. Hemerythrin, a red, iron-containing protein is found in some polychaete worms and annelids and is illustrated in [link] c . Despite the name, hemerythrin does not contain a heme group and its oxygen-carrying capacity is poor compared to hemoglobin.

Molecular model A shows the structure of hemoglobin, which is made up of four protein subunits, each of which is coiled into helices. Left right, bottom and top parts of the molecule are symmetrical. Four small heme groups are associated with hemoglobin. Oxygen is bound to the heme. Molecular model B shows the structure of hemocyanin, a protein made up of coiled helices and ribbon-like sheets. Two copper ions are associated with the protein. Molecular model C shows the structure of hemerythrin, a protein made of coiled helices with four iron ions associated with it.
In most vertebrates, (a) hemoglobin delivers oxygen to the body and removes some carbon dioxide. Hemoglobin is composed of four protein subunits, two alpha chains and two beta chains, and a heme group that has iron associated with it. The iron reversibly associates with oxygen, and in so doing is oxidized from Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ . In most mollusks and some arthropods, (b) hemocyanin delivers oxygen. Unlike hemoglobin, hemolymph is not carried in blood cells, but floats free in the hemolymph. Copper instead of iron binds the oxygen, giving the hemolymph a blue-green color. In annelids, such as the earthworm, and some other invertebrates, (c) hemerythrin carries oxygen. Like hemoglobin, hemerythrin is carried in blood cells and has iron associated with it, but despite its name, hemerythrin does not contain heme.

The small size and large surface area of red blood cells allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the plasma membrane. In the lungs, carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is taken in by the blood. In the tissues, oxygen is released from the blood and carbon dioxide is bound for transport back to the lungs. Studies have found that hemoglobin also binds nitrous oxide (NO). NO is a vasodilator that relaxes the blood vessels and capillaries and may help with gas exchange and the passage of red blood cells through narrow vessels. Nitroglycerin, a heart medication for angina and heart attacks, is converted to NO to help relax the blood vessels and increase oxygen flow through the body.

A characteristic of red blood cells is their glycolipid and glycoprotein coating; these are lipids and proteins that have carbohydrate molecules attached. In humans, the surface glycoproteins and glycolipids on red blood cells vary between individuals, producing the different blood types, such as A, B, and O. Red blood cells have an average life span of 120 days, at which time they are broken down and recycled in the liver and spleen by phagocytic macrophages, a type of white blood cell.

White blood cells

White blood cells, also called leukocytes (leuko = white), make up approximately one percent by volume of the cells in blood. The role of white blood cells is very different than that of red blood cells: they are primarily involved in the immune response to identify and target pathogens, such as invading bacteria, viruses, and other foreign organisms. White blood cells are formed continually; some only live for hours or days, but some live for years.

Questions & Answers

there are 3 trimester in human pregnancy
I don't know answer of this question can u help me
what is a cell
Fatima Reply
what is genetic
Janet Reply
I join
what are the branchas of biology
Prisca Reply
zoology, ecology
genetics, microbiology,botany and embryology
what is a cell
Kulunbawi Reply
cell is smallest unit of life. cells are often cell the building blocks of life...
the first twenty element
Orapinega Reply
what are the characteristics of living things?
growth,respiration,nutrition,sensitivity, movement,irritability, excretion,death.
What is the difference between adaptation and competition in animals
Adeyemi Reply
What is biology
it is a natural science stadey about living things
Biology is the bronch of science which deals with the study of life is called biology
what is the x in 300 stands for?
Ogbudu Reply
the properties of life
Clarinda Reply
response to the environment, reproduction, homeostasis, growth,energy processing etc.....
what is reproduction
Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life,each individual organism exist as a result of re production.....or else Multiplying...
a complete virus particle known as
Darlington Reply
These are formed from identical protein subunitscalled capsomeres.
fabace family plant name
Pushpam Reply
in eukaryotes ...protein channel name which transport protein ...
Pushpam Reply
in bacteria ...chromosomal dna duplicate structure called
what is a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell
Matilda Reply
There are two types of cells. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells don't have a nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles (little organs within that cell). They do however carry genetic material but it's not maintained in the nucleus. Prokaryotic cells are also one celled.
Prokaryotic cells are one celled (single celled).
Prokaryotic cells are Bacteria and Archea
Prokaryotic cells are smaller than Eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells are more complex. They are much bigger than Prokaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
Eukaryotic cells are animals cells which also includes us.
Eukaryotic cells are also multicellular.
nice explaination
eukaryotic cells are individual cells .. but eukaryotes are multicellular organisms which consist of many different types of eukaryotic cells
also eukaryotic cells have mitochondria. prokaryotic cells do not
in prokaryotes only ribosomes are present... in eukaryotes mitochondria ...glogi bodies ..epidermis .....prokaryotes one envelop but eukaryotes compartment envelop....envelop mean membrane bound organelles......
prokaryotic cell are cells dat have no true nuclei i.e no cell membrane while eukaryotic cell are cell dat have true nuclei i.e have cell membrane
we have 46 pair of somatic cell and 23 pair of chromosomes in our body, pls can someone explain it to me. pls
Matilda Reply
we have 22 pairs of somatic chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosome
we have 23 pairs of chromosomes,22 pairs of somatic and one pair of sex chromosomes
23 chromosomes from dad & 23 chromosomes from mom 23 +23=46 total chromosomes
X & Y chromosomes are called sex cells, the very presence of a Y chromosome means the person is Male.
XX Female XY Male
If a Karyotype has more than 46 Chromosomes then nondisjunction occured. For example, having an extra chromosome 21 will cause Down Syndrome.
in mammal state the different vertebrae and their location in the body
Igbinigie Reply

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