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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Name and describe lung volumes and capacities
  • Understand how gas pressure influences how gases move into and out of the body

The structure of the lung maximizes its surface area to increase gas diffusion. Because of the enormous number of alveoli (approximately 300 million in each human lung), the surface area of the lung is very large (75 m 2 ). Having such a large surface area increases the amount of gas that can diffuse into and out of the lungs.

Basic principles of gas exchange

Gas exchange during respiration occurs primarily through diffusion. Diffusion is a process in which transport is driven by a concentration gradient. Gas molecules move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. Blood that is low in oxygen concentration and high in carbon dioxide concentration undergoes gas exchange with air in the lungs. The air in the lungs has a higher concentration of oxygen than that of oxygen-depleted blood and a lower concentration of carbon dioxide. This concentration gradient allows for gas exchange during respiration.

Partial pressure is a measure of the concentration of the individual components in a mixture of gases. The total pressure exerted by the mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the components in the mixture. The rate of diffusion of a gas is proportional to its partial pressure within the total gas mixture. This concept is discussed further in detail below.

Lung volumes and capacities

Different animals have different lung capacities based on their activities. Cheetahs have evolved a much higher lung capacity than humans; it helps provide oxygen to all the muscles in the body and allows them to run very fast. Elephants also have a high lung capacity. In this case, it is not because they run fast but because they have a large body and must be able to take up oxygen in accordance with their body size.

Human lung size is determined by genetics, gender, and height. At maximal capacity, an average lung can hold almost six liters of air, but lungs do not usually operate at maximal capacity. Air in the lungs is measured in terms of lung volumes and lung capacities ( [link] and [link] ). Volume measures the amount of air for one function (such as inhalation or exhalation). Capacity is any two or more volumes (for example, how much can be inhaled from the end of a maximal exhalation).

The chart shows the exchange of air during inhalation and exhalation, which resembles a wave pattern. During normal breathing, only about eight percent of air in the lungs is exchanged, and the amount of air in the lungs is one-half the total lung capacity. When a person breathes in deeply, total lung capacity is attained. The amount of air taken in is called the inspiratory capacity. Forceful exhalation results in expulsion of the expiratory reserve volume. A residual volume of air of about eight percent is left in the lungs. The vital capacity is the difference between the total lung capacity and the residual volume. The inspiratory reserve volume is the difference between the total lung capacity and the amount of air in the lungs after taking a normal breath. The functional residual capacity is the amount of air in the lungs after normal exhalation.
Human lung volumes and capacities are shown. The total lung capacity of the adult male is six liters. Tidal volume is the volume of air inhaled in a single, normal breath. Inspiratory capacity is the amount of air taken in during a deep breath, and residual volume is the amount of air left in the lungs after forceful respiration.
Lung Volumes and Capacities (Avg Adult Male)
Volume/Capacity Definition Volume (liters) Equations
Tidal volume (TV) Amount of air inhaled during a normal breath 0.5 -
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) Amount of air that can be exhaled after a normal exhalation 1.2 -
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) Amount of air that can be further inhaled after a normal inhalation 3.1 -
Residual volume (RV) Air left in the lungs after a forced exhalation 1.2 -
Vital capacity (VC) Maximum amount of air that can be moved in or out of the lungs in a single respiratory cycle 4.8 ERV+TV+IRV
Inspiratory capacity (IC) Volume of air that can be inhaled in addition to a normal exhalation 3.6 TV+IRV
Functional residual capacity (FRC) Volume of air remaining after a normal exhalation 2.4 ERV+RV
Total lung capacity (TLC) Total volume of air in the lungs after a maximal inspiration 6.0 RV+ERV+TV+IRV
Forced expiratory volume (FEV1) How much air can be forced out of the lungs over a specific time period, usually one second ~4.1 to 5.5 -

Questions & Answers

what is oxidation?
Rose Reply
 the state or result of being oxidized
Emmanuel
hahahaha thanks, but my teachers requires a thorough meaning about that
Rose
Is the process of oxidizing ,the addition of oxygen to a compound with a loss of electrons, always accompanied by reduction
Korletey
loss of electron....
Anwar
thank you. 😊
Rose
thank you. 😊
Rose
thank you. 😊
Rose
what is oxidized
Oyebanji
the process or result of oxidizing or being oxidized.
Jersey
what is genetic
Chibawa Reply
name the enzymes that i found in the saliva
Valuables Reply
draw a bacterium cell and label
Kadijah Reply
What are the osmoregulatory functions of the kidney?
bisi Reply
filter
Meenu
What is ecology
Hebert Reply
what is cell
Etama Reply
cell is the basic unit of life
Asiatou
cell is the basic structural and functional unit of an living organism
Darshan
a cell is the smallest and most basic unit of a living thing
John
cell is the basic unit of life. we are made up of 60,000 billions of cells.Each cell carry out a specific function in the body.
Pallavi
A cell is the smallest basic functioning unit of life.
Ali
where is the pectoral gridle located?
Tiania Reply
What is hypotonic
Bright Reply
what is hypotonic
Dangaya
Hypotonic means weak solution
Ali
the difference between the two cells
Obeng Reply
explain the courses and the correction of lon term sightedness and short term sightedness
Isaac Reply
long sightedness is said to be like someone that can see far object clearly why short sightedness is someone that only can see near obect
SHEDRACK
why drinking excess alcohol causes thirst and dehydration
uwikuzo Reply
Can we chat about nutrition please?
Elia
yes
Uzair
sure
Uzair
Uhm why is it so important to follow the nutritional process?
Elia
BC it contribute to the source of life
SHEDRACK
what is reproduction
smart Reply
it is d act of bringing young ones to life
Oyebanji
to ensure survival of a species🚴‍♀️
Michelle
what is a genotype
Collins
what is hazardous
smart
a cell is the smallest unit of a living thing. so we all have cell
smart
It is the formation of a zygote resulting from the fusion of the sperm cell with the ovum.Thus,this results in the production of new species which are genetically dissimilar from their parent cells.
Pallavi
yes we all have cell round our body without the existances of cell them they will be no life in us as human
SHEDRACK
what is size of cell
Mohd Reply
what is size of Hart
Mohd
nanometers=um sign thingie
Michelle
microns=nanometers
Michelle
monomers and polymers of nucleic acids?
Jyrl Reply
dna and rna involvement
Michelle

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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