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Illustration shows that the ball-shaped end of the humerus fits into the socket in the shoulder joint.
The shoulder joint is an example of a ball-and-socket joint.

Watch this animation showing the six types of synovial joints.

Career connection

Rheumatologist

Rheumatologists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the joints, muscles, and bones. They diagnose and treat diseases such as arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders, osteoporosis, and autoimmune diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disorder that primarily affects the synovial joints of the hands, feet, and cervical spine. Affected joints become swollen, stiff, and painful. Although it is known that RA is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue, the cause of RA remains unknown. Immune cells from the blood enter joints and the synovium causing cartilage breakdown, swelling, and inflammation of the joint lining. Breakdown of cartilage causes bones to rub against each other causing pain. RA is more common in women than men and the age of onset is usually 40–50 years of age.

Rheumatologists can diagnose RA on the basis of symptoms such as joint inflammation and pain, X-ray and MRI imaging, and blood tests. Arthrography is a type of medical imaging of joints that uses a contrast agent, such as a dye, that is opaque to X-rays. This allows the soft tissue structures of joints—such as cartilage, tendons, and ligaments—to be visualized. An arthrogram differs from a regular X-ray by showing the surface of soft tissues lining the joint in addition to joint bones. An arthrogram allows early degenerative changes in joint cartilage to be detected before bones become affected.

There is currently no cure for RA; however, rheumatologists have a number of treatment options available. Early stages can be treated with rest of the affected joints by using a cane or by using joint splints that minimize inflammation. When inflammation has decreased, exercise can be used to strengthen the muscles that surround the joint and to maintain joint flexibility. If joint damage is more extensive, medications can be used to relieve pain and decrease inflammation. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, topical pain relievers, and corticosteroid injections may be used. Surgery may be required in cases in which joint damage is severe.

Section summary

The structural classification of joints divides them into bony, fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints. The bones of fibrous joints are held together by fibrous connective tissue; the three types of fibrous joints are sutures, syndesomes, and gomphoses. Cartilaginous joints are joints in which the bones are connected by cartilage; the two types of cartilaginous joints are synchondroses and symphyses. Synovial joints are joints that have a space between the adjoining bones. The functional classification divides joints into three categories: synarthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthroses. The movement of synovial joints can be classified as one of four different types: gliding, angular, rotational, or special movement. Gliding movements occur as relatively flat bone surfaces move past each other. Angular movements are produced when the angle between the bones of a joint changes. Rotational movement is the movement of a bone as it rotates around its own longitudinal axis. Special movements include inversion, eversion, protraction, retraction, elevation, depression, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, supination, pronation, and opposition. Synovial joints are also classified into six different categories on the basis of the shape and structure of the joint: planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket.

Questions & Answers

Mendel experiment when years ago in work
Biruk Reply
what is the smallest unit in an organism
Neimar Reply
what is endoplasmic
Fatou Reply
If Jane was in room(B) while her mother Stella was in room (Y). Jane was cooking fish, her mother came to smell the good scent, By what process did her mother came to smell the scent
Neimar Reply
Is it a serious question?
Ehsan Reply
what's the question
Joseph
how many days do a bean seed take to germinate
Nando
what is DNA
Yahaya Reply
genetic information
MG
Deoxyribonucliec acid (DNA) is the cell's hereditary material that contains instructions for growth, development and reproduction.
Joseph
ok
oly
what's different between sex and gender
oly
Are there differences between sex and gender?
Theo
lol
Andrew
hi Yahaya its Deoxyribonucleic acid
Neimar
describe an experiment to show that plants require light for photosynthesis
Diyara Reply
uuh... putting a plant in a dark closet... and another in a light enviroment?
Anastasiya
wow! awesome explanation Anastasiya.
Joseph
please can you explain why air is homogenous
Joseph
Because each layer of the Earth's atmosphere has a different density, each layer of air is it's own homogenous.
MG
tell me about big bang
Mustafa
what's DNA
Mustafa
What's an amoeba
Bigger Reply
An amoeba is a cell or an organism that has the ability to ulter it's shape.
Joseph
An amoeba has an irregular shape and it changes constantly,it's a unicellular organism belong to a group called protists it has a pseudopodia used for locomotion and ingestion...
Emmanuel
amoeba is an organism that has an inregular shape which changes constantly
Cashizz
amoeba is an unicellular organism that uses pseudopodia,it does not have a constant shape
Alohan
what is the difference between DNA and RNA
Alohan
DNA with oxygenated but RNA without oxygenated
qax
what is the mode of nutrition of fungi
Survive
asexual
qax
amoeba are protozoa with one cell and no fixed shape
James
heterotrophic and outrotrophic
qax
what is the between arteries and capillary
qax
arteries>arterioles>capillaries. decrease in size and thus pressure
Anastasiya
DNA deossoribonucleic acid. RNA ribonucleic acid. The difference between the two lies in a lack of one oxygen on the sugar in DNA. Also: in DNA the azotate bases are Guanine, Citosine, Adenine and TIMINE base, the latter is replaced by URACILE in RNA. DNA formes a double helix structure...
Anastasiya
... while RNA form is usually a single stand line, but it can form loops etc
Anastasiya
what is a zygote?
Darius Reply
zygote is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. The zygote's genome is a combination of the DNA in each gamete, and contains all of the genetic information necessary to form a new individual.
MG
A zygote is an organism formed after fertilization
Neimar
how do plants form a zygote
Paclina Reply
What is zygote
Van
what is zygote
Darius
Zygote is located inside the ovule, which is present in the ovary.
MG
zygote is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. The zygote's genome is a combination of the DNA in each gamete, and contains all of the genetic information necessary to form a new individual.
MG
Okay
Van
what is biology?
Aadan Reply
biology is the study of living n non living organism
Kelsia
what is procotist?
Kelsia
Biology is the branch of science that deals with the study of living and non living things
Neimar
Describe at least two major changes to the animal phylogenetic tree that have come about due to molecular or genetic findings.
Tamala Reply
what is herbarium sheet
Ramreichon Reply
Which of the following is not a characteristics of all living organisms? A. Excretion B. Photosynthesis C. Reproduction D. Respiration
Abel
B.
Anastasiya
B photosynthesis
Survive
general equation for photosynthesis
Ojasope Reply
6CO2 + 6H2O + solar energy= C6H1206+ 6O2
Anastasiya
meaning of amino Acids
AJAYI Reply
An aminoacid is a base unit molecule for proteins. It s formed by a central Carbon, to which are attached: an amminic Group, a carbossilic Group, an H hydrogen, and an R group ( which varies for each different aminoacid). Glycin is the only aminoacid to have for an R group a simple H hydrogen.
Anastasiya
H NH2-C-COOH R this is the not ionized form but usually they are ionized, with NH+ and COO-
Anastasiya
The R group, the lateral Chain, is responsible for the characteristics of the aminoacid.
Anastasiya
* NH2+
Anastasiya
J=1 jar daq
Van

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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