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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the relationship of amplitude and frequency of a sound wave to attributes of sound
  • Trace the path of sound through the auditory system to the site of transduction of sound
  • Identify the structures of the vestibular system that respond to gravity

Audition , or hearing, is important to humans and to other animals for many different interactions. It enables an organism to detect and receive information about danger, such as an approaching predator, and to participate in communal exchanges like those concerning territories or mating. On the other hand, although it is physically linked to the auditory system, the vestibular system is not involved in hearing. Instead, an animal’s vestibular system detects its own movement, both linear and angular acceleration and deceleration, and balance.


Auditory stimuli are sound waves, which are mechanical, pressure waves that move through a medium, such as air or water. There are no sound waves in a vacuum since there are no air molecules to move in waves. The speed of sound waves differs, based on altitude, temperature, and medium, but at sea level and a temperature of 20º C (68º F), sound waves travel in the air at about 343 meters per second.

As is true for all waves, there are four main characteristics of a sound wave: frequency, wavelength, period, and amplitude. Frequency is the number of waves per unit of time, and in sound is heard as pitch. High-frequency (≥15.000Hz) sounds are higher-pitched (short wavelength) than low-frequency (long wavelengths; ≤100Hz) sounds. Frequency is measured in cycles per second, and for sound, the most commonly used unit is hertz (Hz), or cycles per second. Most humans can perceive sounds with frequencies between 30 and 20,000 Hz. Women are typically better at hearing high frequencies, but everyone’s ability to hear high frequencies decreases with age. Dogs detect up to about 40,000 Hz; cats, 60,000 Hz; bats, 100,000 Hz; and dolphins 150,000 Hz, and American shad ( Alosa sapidissima ), a fish, can hear 180,000 Hz. Those frequencies above the human range are called ultrasound    .

Amplitude, or the dimension of a wave from peak to trough, in sound is heard as volume and is illustrated in [link] . The sound waves of louder sounds have greater amplitude than those of softer sounds. For sound, volume is measured in decibels (dB). The softest sound that a human can hear is the zero point. Humans speak normally at 60 decibels.

A graph shows a regularly repeating sine wave that goes gradually up, then down, then up again. The distance between two crests is the wavelength. The amplitude is the height of the wave. On the graph, two waves with different wavelengths but the same amplitude are superimposed on one another.
For sound waves, wavelength corresponds to pitch. Amplitude of the wave corresponds to volume. The sound wave shown with a dashed line is softer in volume than the sound wave shown with a solid line. (credit: NIH)

Reception of sound

In mammals, sound waves are collected by the external, cartilaginous part of the ear called the pinna    , then travel through the auditory canal and cause vibration of the thin diaphragm called the tympanum    or ear drum, the innermost part of the outer ear    (illustrated in [link] ). Interior to the tympanum is the middle ear    . The middle ear holds three small bones called the ossicles , which transfer energy from the moving tympanum to the inner ear. The three ossicles are the malleus    (also known as the hammer), the incus    (the anvil), and stapes    (the stirrup). The aptly named stapes looks very much like a stirrup. The three ossicles are unique to mammals, and each plays a role in hearing. The malleus attaches at three points to the interior surface of the tympanic membrane. The incus attaches the malleus to the stapes. In humans, the stapes is not long enough to reach the tympanum. If we did not have the malleus and the incus, then the vibrations of the tympanum would never reach the inner ear. These bones also function to collect force and amplify sounds. The ear ossicles are homologous to bones in a fish mouth: the bones that support gills in fish are thought to be adapted for use in the vertebrate ear over evolutionary time. Many animals (frogs, reptiles, and birds, for example) use the stapes of the middle ear to transmit vibrations to the middle ear.

Questions & Answers

there are 3 trimester in human pregnancy
I don't know answer of this question can u help me
what is a cell
Fatima Reply
what is genetic
Janet Reply
I join
what are the branchas of biology
Prisca Reply
zoology, ecology
genetics, microbiology,botany and embryology
what is a cell
Kulunbawi Reply
cell is smallest unit of life. cells are often cell the building blocks of life...
the first twenty element
Orapinega Reply
what are the characteristics of living things?
growth,respiration,nutrition,sensitivity, movement,irritability, excretion,death.
What is the difference between adaptation and competition in animals
Adeyemi Reply
What is biology
it is a natural science stadey about living things
Biology is the bronch of science which deals with the study of life is called biology
what is the x in 300 stands for?
Ogbudu Reply
the properties of life
Clarinda Reply
response to the environment, reproduction, homeostasis, growth,energy processing etc.....
what is reproduction
Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life,each individual organism exist as a result of re production.....or else Multiplying...
a complete virus particle known as
Darlington Reply
These are formed from identical protein subunitscalled capsomeres.
fabace family plant name
Pushpam Reply
in eukaryotes ...protein channel name which transport protein ...
Pushpam Reply
in bacteria ...chromosomal dna duplicate structure called
what is a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell
Matilda Reply
There are two types of cells. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells don't have a nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles (little organs within that cell). They do however carry genetic material but it's not maintained in the nucleus. Prokaryotic cells are also one celled.
Prokaryotic cells are one celled (single celled).
Prokaryotic cells are Bacteria and Archea
Prokaryotic cells are smaller than Eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells are more complex. They are much bigger than Prokaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
Eukaryotic cells are animals cells which also includes us.
Eukaryotic cells are also multicellular.
nice explaination
eukaryotic cells are individual cells .. but eukaryotes are multicellular organisms which consist of many different types of eukaryotic cells
also eukaryotic cells have mitochondria. prokaryotic cells do not
in prokaryotes only ribosomes are present... in eukaryotes mitochondria ...glogi bodies ..epidermis .....prokaryotes one envelop but eukaryotes compartment envelop....envelop mean membrane bound organelles......
prokaryotic cell are cells dat have no true nuclei i.e no cell membrane while eukaryotic cell are cell dat have true nuclei i.e have cell membrane
we have 46 pair of somatic cell and 23 pair of chromosomes in our body, pls can someone explain it to me. pls
Matilda Reply
we have 22 pairs of somatic chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosome
we have 23 pairs of chromosomes,22 pairs of somatic and one pair of sex chromosomes
23 chromosomes from dad & 23 chromosomes from mom 23 +23=46 total chromosomes
X & Y chromosomes are called sex cells, the very presence of a Y chromosome means the person is Male.
XX Female XY Male
If a Karyotype has more than 46 Chromosomes then nondisjunction occured. For example, having an extra chromosome 21 will cause Down Syndrome.
in mammal state the different vertebrae and their location in the body
Igbinigie Reply

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