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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the symptoms, potential causes, and treatment of several examples of nervous system disorders

A nervous system that functions correctly is a fantastically complex, well-oiled machine—synapses fire appropriately, muscles move when needed, memories are formed and stored, and emotions are well regulated. Unfortunately, each year millions of people in the United States deal with some sort of nervous system disorder. While scientists have discovered potential causes of many of these diseases, and viable treatments for some, ongoing research seeks to find ways to better prevent and treat all of these disorders.

Neurodegenerative disorders

Neurodegenerative disorders are illnesses characterized by a loss of nervous system functioning that are usually caused by neuronal death. These diseases generally worsen over time as more and more neurons die. The symptoms of a particular neurodegenerative disease are related to where in the nervous system the death of neurons occurs. Spinocerebellar ataxia, for example, leads to neuronal death in the cerebellum. The death of these neurons causes problems in balance and walking. Neurodegenerative disorders include Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia disorders, and Parkinson’s disease. Here, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease will be discussed in more depth.

Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease    is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. In 2012, an estimated 5.4 million Americans suffered from Alzheimer’s disease, and payments for their care are estimated at $200 billion. Roughly one in every eight people age 65 or older has the disease. Due to the aging of the baby-boomer generation, there are projected to be as many as 13 million Alzheimer’s patients in the United States in the year 2050.

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease include disruptive memory loss, confusion about time or place, difficulty planning or executing tasks, poor judgment, and personality changes. Problems smelling certain scents can also be indicative of Alzheimer’s disease and may serve as an early warning sign. Many of these symptoms are also common in people who are aging normally, so it is the severity and longevity of the symptoms that determine whether a person is suffering from Alzheimer’s.

Alzheimer’s disease was named for Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist who published a report in 1911 about a woman who showed severe dementia symptoms. Along with his colleagues, he examined the woman’s brain following her death and reported the presence of abnormal clumps, which are now called amyloid plaques, along with tangled brain fibers called neurofibrillary tangles. Amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and an overall shrinking of brain volume are commonly seen in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. Loss of neurons in the hippocampus is especially severe in advanced Alzheimer’s patients. [link] compares a normal brain to the brain of an Alzheimer’s patient. Many research groups are examining the causes of these hallmarks of the disease.

Questions & Answers

what is parasitic movement
Emmanuel Reply
Parasitic movement is a problem for all of us. So is its companion, parasitic tension. Parasitic movement is the excess contraction of muscles that you don't actually need to complete an action.
freya
what are eukaryotic cells
Thiza Reply
what is the mean of pair of chromosomes
Kazula Reply
hi
Lagos
23 haploid and 23diploid
Patson
how are you studying in this quarantine? .. how are you keeping yourselves motivated?
sivajijadhav @815.com
good morning guyz
Joelia
morning
Kazula
hi
Justin
Good
Angela
tell me if you know what can be used...than reading pls hint me pls 🙏🙏🙏
Angela
what is the important of sex
Aremu Reply
why did human being need sex?
Aremu
because he/she have feelings
Chripine
reproduction...to make more
Yazi
due to active harmon
Manish
One important of sex is to reproduce
Emma
to ensure the countinuty of life
Yusuf
all of you are right
Edith
what is momentum
Asiya Reply
The strength or force that allows something to continue or grow stronger or faster as time pass
Emma
What is Centripetal Force?
Justin
centrepital force is the inward force required to keep a body moving with constant speed in a circular path
Yusuf
what is the test for protein
Takii Reply
List four condition necessary for seed germination
Tedeka Reply
water,air(oxygen),light,temperature
Hassan
water, light, oxygen and temperature
lilchris
water, oxygen, light temperature
Mike
water oxygen light and temperature
John
importance of biology
Alabina Reply
importance of boilogy
Alabina
what is soil
Amina Reply
soil is the upper part of the earth
Alabina
what is importance of studying biology
Alabina
soil is the uppermost layer of the earth on which plant grows
Yusuf
soil is defined as the thin surface of the upper most layer of the earth crust on which plants grow
Thanni
soil is the upper part of the earth which plants grow on
Emma
differences between euglenoid and amoeboid
Grace Reply
what are the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
Maxwell Reply
Aerobic respiration involves the use of oxygen whiles anaerobic respiration does not involve the use of oxygen
Quabena
what is assmilation
Lucy Reply
what is cell
Manish Reply
cell is the structural and functional unit of life or living things
hamid
where anaerobic respiration occurre?
Manish
in cell
Manish
in cells?
Manish
where anaerobic respiration occurre in cell?
Manish
what's phloem?
Gift Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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