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Fat-soluble Essential Vitamins
Vitamin Function Deficiencies Can Lead To Sources
Vitamin A (Retinol) Critical to the development of bones, teeth, and skin; helps maintain eyesight, enhances the immune system, fetal development, gene expression Night-blindness, skin disorders, impaired immunity Dark green leafy vegetables, yellow-orange vegetables fruits, milk, butter
Vitamin D Critical for calcium absorption for bone development and strength; maintains a stable nervous system; maintains a normal and strong heartbeat; helps in blood clotting Rickets, osteomalacia, immunity Cod liver oil, milk, egg yolk
Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Lessens oxidative damage of cells,and prevents lung damage from pollutants; vital to the immune system Deficiency is rare; anemia, nervous system degeneration Wheat germ oil, unrefined vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, grains
Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) Essential to blood clotting Bleeding and easy bruising Leafy green vegetables, tea
Photo shows a variety of foods, including lobster, clams, nuts and liver.
A healthy diet should include a variety of foods to ensure that needs for essential nutrients are met. (credit: Keith Weller, USDA ARS)
Minerals and Their Function in the Human Body
Mineral Function Deficiencies Can Lead To Sources
*Calcium Needed for muscle and neuron function; heart health; builds bone and supports synthesis and function of blood cells; nerve function Osteoporosis, rickets, muscle spasms, impaired growth Milk, yogurt, fish, green leafy vegetables, legumes
*Chlorine Needed for production of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach and nerve function; osmotic balance Muscle cramps, mood disturbances, reduced appetite Table salt
Copper (trace amounts) Required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase; cofactor for hemoglobin synthesis Copper deficiency is rare Liver, oysters, cocoa, chocolate, sesame, nuts
Iodine Required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones Goiter Seafood, iodized salt, dairy products
Iron Required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin, to prevent anemia Anemia, which causes poor concentration, fatigue, and poor immune function Red meat, leafy green vegetables, fish (tuna, salmon), eggs, dried fruits, beans, whole grains
*Magnesium Required co-factor for ATP formation; bone formation; normal membrane functions; muscle function Mood disturbances, muscle spasms Whole grains, leafy green vegetables
Manganese (trace amounts) A cofactor in enzyme functions; trace amounts are required Manganese deficiency is rare Common in most foods
Molybdenum (trace amounts) Acts as a cofactor for three essential enzymes in humans: sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase Molybdenum deficiency is rare
*Phosphorus A component of bones and teeth; helps regulate acid-base balance; nucleotide synthesis Weakness, bone abnormalities, calcium loss Milk, hard cheese, whole grains, meats
*Potassium Vital for muscles, heart, and nerve function Cardiac rhythm disturbance, muscle weakness Legumes, potato skin, tomatoes, bananas
Selenium (trace amounts) A cofactor essential to activity of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase; trace amounts are required Selenium deficiency is rare Common in most foods
*Sodium Systemic electrolyte required for many functions; acid-base balance; water balance; nerve function Muscle cramps, fatigue, reduced appetite Table salt
Zinc (trace amounts) Required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase Anemia, poor wound healing, can lead to short stature Common in most foods
*Greater than 200mg/day required

Questions & Answers

what is Biology
Sheku Reply
what is biology?
William Reply
the study of living things
Joe
what's marketing
Mirabel Reply
what are hormones
Mirabel
what is meant by th word photosynthesis
MARTHA Reply
it is the process where by chloropherious plant manufacture their food with the presence of sunlight , chlorophyll and water etc.
Kosoe
what is biology
stallon Reply
is the study living things
Zhayma
and non living things
Zhayma
what is water circle?
Faith Reply
please i asks whether this biology is for university
Sky Reply
for secondary
stallon
Copulation means coming together of male and female in the present of sexual Intercourse.
LEKAN Reply
what are the adaptive features of nervous system
Ridhwan
Please what is ovulation
Adusei Reply
What is cell division?
Adusei
What is copulation?
Adusei
bhaiya didi Gate mat
qaisar
bajali ji ka matlab Aur Payal Chaudhary ka matlab
qaisar
please tell me adaptive features of nervous system
Ridhwan
what is a metaborism
Beatrice Reply
this is a specialized part of the cell eg Nucleus
David Reply
what are adaptive features of nervous system
Ridhwan
what are the organelles?
Faith Reply
what is reproduction
mana Reply
reproduction is the process by which living organisms give rise to young ones of their own kind
Miriam
What is evolution
Wengelawit
the production of new forms of life over time as documented in the fossil record.
mana
hmm
Marvin
give two parasites where secondary host is water snail?
Kevin Reply
what is treats
Raih Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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