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The more active an animal is, the more energy is needed to maintain that activity, and the higher its BMR or SMR. The average daily rate of energy consumption is about two to four times an animal’s BMR or SMR. Humans are more sedentary than most animals and have an average daily rate of only 1.5 times the BMR. The diet of an endothermic animal is determined by its BMR. For example: the type of grasses, leaves, or shrubs that an herbivore eats affects the number of calories that it takes in. The relative caloric content of herbivore foods, in descending order, is tall grasses>legumes>short grasses>forbs (any broad-leaved plant, not a grass)>subshrubs>annuals/biennials.

Animals adapt to extremes of temperature or food availability through torpor. Torpor is a process that leads to a decrease in activity and metabolism and allows animals to survive adverse conditions. Torpor can be used by animals for long periods, such as entering a state of hibernation    during the winter months, in which case it enables them to maintain a reduced body temperature. During hibernation, ground squirrels can achieve an abdominal temperature of 0° C (32° F), while a bear’s internal temperature is maintained higher at about 37° C (99° F).

If torpor occurs during the summer months with high temperatures and little water, it is called estivation    . Some desert animals use this to survive the harshest months of the year. Torpor can occur on a daily basis; this is seen in bats and hummingbirds. While endothermy is limited in smaller animals by surface to volume ratio, some organisms can be smaller and still be endotherms because they employ daily torpor during the part of the day that is coldest. This allows them to conserve energy during the colder parts of the day, when they consume more energy to maintain their body temperature.

Animal body planes and cavities

A standing vertebrate animal can be divided by several planes. A sagittal plane    divides the body into right and left portions. A midsagittal plane    divides the body exactly in the middle, making two equal right and left halves. A frontal plane (also called a coronal plane) separates the front from the back. A transverse plane (or, horizontal plane) divides the animal into upper and lower portions. This is sometimes called a cross section, and, if the transverse cut is at an angle, it is called an oblique plane. [link] illustrates these planes on a goat (a four-legged animal) and a human being.

Illustration A shows the planes of a goat body. The midsagittal plane runs through the middle of the goat from front to back, separating the right and left sides. The frontal plane also runs from front to back, but separates the upper half of the body from the lower half. The transverse plane runs across the middle of the goat, and separate the front and back halves of the body. Illustration B shows the planes of a human body. The midsagittal plane runs from top to bottom and separates the right and left halves of the body. The Frontal plane also runs from top to bottom and separates the front and back halves of the body. The Transverse plane dissects the middle of the body between the chest and abdomen, separating the top of the body from the bottom. The midline is an imaginary line running through the middle of the body, from top to bottom.
Shown are the planes of a quadruped goat and a bipedal human. The midsagittal plane divides the body exactly in half, into right and left portions. The frontal plane divides the front and back, and the transverse plane divides the body into upper and lower portions.

Vertebrate animals have a number of defined body cavities, as illustrated in [link] . Two of these are major cavities that contain smaller cavities within them. The dorsal cavity    contains the cranial and the vertebral (or spinal) cavities. The ventral cavity    contains the thoracic cavity, which in turn contains the pleural cavity around the lungs and the pericardial cavity, which surrounds the heart. The ventral cavity also contains the abdominopelvic cavity, which can be separated into the abdominal and the pelvic cavities.

Illustration shows a cross-sectional side view of the upper part of a human body. The entire head region above the eyes and to the back of the head and a long thin strip from this region down the back is shaded to indicate the dorsal cavity. The head is labeled cranial cavity and the long thin region down the back is the spinal cavity. A large oblong area shaded at the front of the body indicates the ventral cavity. It is labeled from top to bottom as thoracic cavity, diaphragm (thin line separating regions), abdominal cavity, and pelvic cavity. The abdominal and pelvic cavities are separated by a thin dashed line and together they are labeled the abdominopelvic cavity.
Vertebrate animals have two major body cavities. The dorsal cavity, indicated in green, contains the cranial and the spinal cavity. The ventral cavity, indicated in yellow, contains the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity. The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominopelvic cavity by the diaphragm. The thoracic cavity is separated into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity by an imaginary line parallel to the pelvis bones. (credit: modification of work by NCI)

Career connections

Physical anthropologist

Physical anthropologists study the adaption, variability, and evolution of human beings, plus their living and fossil relatives. They can work in a variety of settings, although most will have an academic appointment at a university, usually in an anthropology department or a biology, genetics, or zoology department.

Non-academic positions are available in the automotive and aerospace industries where the focus is on human size, shape, and anatomy. Research by these professionals might range from studies of how the human body reacts to car crashes to exploring how to make seats more comfortable. Other non-academic positions can be obtained in museums of natural history, anthropology, archaeology, or science and technology. These positions involve educating students from grade school through graduate school. Physical anthropologists serve as education coordinators, collection managers, writers for museum publications, and as administrators. Zoos employ these professionals, especially if they have an expertise in primate biology; they work in collection management and captive breeding programs for endangered species. Forensic science utilizes physical anthropology expertise in identifying human and animal remains, assisting in determining the cause of death, and for expert testimony in trials.

Section summary

Animal bodies come in a variety of sizes and shapes. Limits on animal size and shape include impacts to their movement. Diffusion affects their size and development. Bioenergetics describes how animals use and obtain energy in relation to their body size, activity level, and environment.

Questions & Answers

What is the Molecular Biology?
Service Reply
The branch of biology that deals with the structure and function of the macromolecules (e.g. proteins and nucleic acids) essential to life.
Sam
what is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
Fatima Reply
what is an element
Saidu Reply
Element is any one of the simplest chemical substances that cannot be decomposed in a chemical reaction.
Lucky
an element is a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance
Akosua
explain why only one sperm fertilisers the ovum
Frazzy Reply
its because other sperms are destroyed on the way
Nasib
what is cell
Dau Reply
Cell is the smallest unit of life
Yodit
cell refers of the basic, structural and function unit of an organism
jacob
smallest functional unit of an organism
Nasib
explain for me for ecological factors affecting each of aquatic and terrestrial habitats
Ikeh Reply
Temperature, high humidity
Afriyie
50%
Yodit
temperature,light intensity,Co2
Nasib
what's meosis
Umoke Reply
meiosis this is the type of cell division which reduces the number of chromosomes in order to form a gamete
Caren
meiosis refers to the form of cell division in which a cell divides into four daughter nuclei each containing the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell
Bigenis
yes
Marah
cell division where one cell sprits into 4 daughter cells each having half number of chromosomes as parent cell
Nasib
The end of the linear chromosomes are maintained by
birabwa Reply
Gene
Afriyie
Telomerase
birabwa
is the process of undigested food in body
Enoch Reply
Hi
Afriyie
hello
birabwa
hi
Boame
Hello
kanahiya
Yeah
Jerry
what up nigga
Aidan
hello
Gajanan
Help me, I'm new here.
Sam
What is biology
Hope Reply
What is DNA in full
birabwa
Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid
ibrahim
deoxyibonucleic acid
jacob
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Afriyie
is the study of living things and their interactions with the environment
jacob
is the energy production of studying in life (every living things)
Enoch
de-oxybonuclic acid
Fafali
Biology is the study of life.
Euchy
Biology is the study of plant, animal and it's environment
Eze
biology is the branch of science that deal with plants and living organism
Dominic
what's the difference between bi-enial crops and perennial crops
Johnson Reply
Bi-enial crops are crops that live/exist/can last for as long as 2 years while perennial crops are crops that are evergreen and can last eternity or an inestimable amount of time.
Joanna
what isrespiration
Massa Reply
Mg is very important part of enzymes which deal with DNA. It is a very simple reason but overlooked.
Eric Reply
what mitochondria means
ADEDAYO Reply
its is the most universal organelle among eukaryotes,it is surrounded by double membrane and in it are foldings and invaginationscalled cristae where areobic respiration takes place
Alex
an organelle found in large number in most cell ,in which the biochemical process of respiration and energy production occur
jacob
Mitochondria is the power house of a cell
Joanna
is the energy production in a female hormones
Enoch
how does a cell look like
Clara Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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