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Art connection

Illustration a shows bacteriophage T4, which houses its DNA genome in a hexagonal head. A long, straight tail extends from the bottom of the head. Tail fibers attached to the base of the tail are bent, like spider legs. In b, adenovirus houses its DNA genome in a round capsid made from many small capsomere subunits. Glycoproteins extend from the capsomere, like pins from a pincushion. In c, the HIV retrovirus houses its RNA genome and an enzyme called reverse transcriptase in a bullet-shaped capsid. A spherical viral envelope, lined with matrix proteins, surrounds the capsid. Glycoproteins extend from the viral envelope.
Viruses can be either complex in shape or relatively simple. This figure shows three relatively complex virions: the bacteriophage T4, with its DNA-containing head group and tail fibers that attach to host cells; adenovirus, which uses spikes from its capsid to bind to host cells; and HIV, which uses glycoproteins embedded in its envelope to bind to host cells. Notice that HIV has proteins called matrix proteins, internal to the envelope, which help stabilize virion shape. (credit “bacteriophage, adenovirus”: modification of work by NCBI, NIH; credit “HIV retrovirus”: modification of work by NIAID, NIH)

Which of the following statements about virus structure is true?

  1. All viruses are encased in a viral membrane.
  2. The capsomere is made up of small protein subunits called capsids.
  3. DNA is the genetic material in all viruses.
  4. Glycoproteins help the virus attach to the host cell.

Types of nucleic acid

Unlike nearly all living organisms that use DNA as their genetic material, viruses may use either DNA or RNA as theirs. The virus core    contains the genome or total genetic content of the virus. Viral genomes tend to be small, containing only those genes that encode proteins that the virus cannot get from the host cell. This genetic material may be single- or double-stranded. It may also be linear or circular. While most viruses contain a single nucleic acid, others have genomes that have several, which are called segments.

In DNA viruses, the viral DNA directs the host cell’s replication proteins to synthesize new copies of the viral genome and to transcribe and translate that genome into viral proteins. DNA viruses cause human diseases, such as chickenpox, hepatitis B, and some venereal diseases, like herpes and genital warts.

RNA viruses contain only RNA as their genetic material. To replicate their genomes in the host cell, the RNA viruses encode enzymes that can replicate RNA into DNA, which cannot be done by the host cell. These RNA polymerase enzymes are more likely to make copying errors than DNA polymerases, and therefore often make mistakes during transcription. For this reason, mutations in RNA viruses occur more frequently than in DNA viruses. This causes them to change and adapt more rapidly to their host. Human diseases caused by RNA viruses include hepatitis C, measles, and rabies.

Virus classification

To understand the features shared among different groups of viruses, a classification scheme is necessary. As most viruses are not thought to have evolved from a common ancestor, however, the methods that scientists use to classify living things are not very useful. Biologists have used several classification systems in the past, based on the morphology and genetics of the different viruses. However, these earlier classification methods grouped viruses differently, based on which features of the virus they were using to classify them. The most commonly used classification method today is called the Baltimore classification scheme and is based on how messenger RNA (mRNA) is generated in each particular type of virus.

Questions & Answers

this is a specialized part of the cell eg Nucleus
David Reply
what are the organelles?
Faith Reply
what is reproduction
mana Reply
reproduction is the process by which living organisms give rise to young ones of their own kind
Miriam
What is evolution
Wengelawit
the production of new forms of life over time as documented in the fossil record.
mana
hmm
Marvin
give two parasites where secondary host is water snail?
Kevin Reply
what is treats
Raih Reply
what are the organelles in cell that involves in protein sythenis
Rita Reply
what is a melanin?
Judith Reply
what is telophase
Elphas
melanin in that black color we posse in our skins
Marvin
Why do parasites take on a parasitic life?
Asadullah Reply
what is cell
Ousman Reply
A cell is the basic structure unit of an organ
Yaa
what is respiration
Igwe
what is organisms?
Bashir
Organisms are living things that can function on their own
EZEA
A cell is a functional basic unit of an organisms.
Evelyn
Organisms is a entity which consists of one or more cells and are able to undergo all life processes
Evelyn
A respiration is the physical and chemical break down of complex food substance into absorbable or simple form.
Evelyn
What will to a cell if the nucleus is removed..?
Goodrick Reply
When a cell nucleus removed then the cell will not be able to function properly, it will not be able to grow .All the metabolic functioning of the cell will stop .Without nucleus the cell will lose it's control. It can not carry out cellular reproduction .
Evelyn
defin peroxesome
walid
write a short note on how the kidney carry out osmoregulation in man
Rhoda Reply
Kidney play a very large role in human osoregulation by regulating the amount of water reabsorbed from glomerular filtrate in kidney as tubules, which is controlled by hormones such as antrdiuvetic hormone (ADH) , aldosterone and angiotensin.
Evelyn
kidney is capable of osmoregulation in mammal ,
Judith
simple definition for respiratory system
Gift Reply
Respiratory system is a network of organs and tissues that helps you to breathe or help in getting the rids of oxygen and discharge of carbon dioxide in the body.
Ruhiyatu
What are uses of respiratory system
Joster
how it functions
Ousman
what is inresparetion
Fikkabex
Why do parasites take on a parasitic life?
Asadullah
A respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plant
Evelyn
diseases of respiration
walid
when air enters to the body called inresparetion
walid
explain why plants responds to stimuli slowly than animals
Bekoe
how is a aerenchyma tissue adapted to its function
fatuma Reply
Have large air spaces that store air for gaseous exchange... Large air spaces also facilitate bouyancy.
Goodrick
what does DNA mean
innocent Reply
dioxiribo nucleic acid
Lekan
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Goodrick
dioxide nucleic acid
Shadrack
what does RNA mean
Shadrack
Ribonucleic acid
Goodrick
what is DNA and RNA
Miriam
defin work of DNA
walid
it's control gene expression during the cell cycle
Marcus
what is a zygote
Victor Reply
zygote is developed or fertilized egg cell
Lekan

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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