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The second electron shell may contain eight electrons. This shell contains another spherical s orbital and three “dumbbell” shaped p orbitals, each of which can hold two electrons, as shown in [link] . After the 1 s orbital is filled, the second electron shell is filled, first filling its 2 s orbital and then its three p orbitals. When filling the p orbitals, each takes a single electron; once each p orbital has an electron, a second may be added. Lithium (Li) contains three electrons that occupy the first and second shells. Two electrons fill the 1 s orbital, and the third electron then fills the 2 s orbital. Its electron configuration    is 1 s 2 2 s 1 . Neon (Ne), on the other hand, has a total of ten electrons: two are in its innermost 1 s orbital and eight fill its second shell (two each in the 2 s and three p orbitals); thus, it is an inert gas and energetically stable as a single atom that will rarely form a chemical bond with other atoms. Larger elements have additional orbitals, making up the third electron shell. While the concepts of electron shells and orbitals are closely related, orbitals provide a more accurate depiction of the electron configuration of an atom because the orbital model specifies the different shapes and special orientations of all the places that electrons may occupy.

Watch this visual animation to see the spatial arrangement of the p and s orbitals.

Chemical reactions and molecules

All elements are most stable when their outermost shell is filled with electrons according to the octet rule. This is because it is energetically favorable for atoms to be in that configuration and it makes them stable. However, since not all elements have enough electrons to fill their outermost shells, atoms form chemical bonds with other atoms thereby obtaining the electrons they need to attain a stable electron configuration. When two or more atoms chemically bond with each other, the resultant chemical structure is a molecule. The familiar water molecule, H 2 O, consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom; these bond together to form water, as illustrated in [link] . Atoms can form molecules by donating, accepting, or sharing electrons to fill their outer shells.

In the first image, an oxygen atom is shown with six valence electrons. Four of these valence electrons form pairs at the top and right sides of the valence shell. The other two electrons are alone on the bottom and left sides. A hydrogen atom sits next to each the lone electron of the oxygen. Each hydrogen has only one valence electron. An arrow indicates that a reaction takes place. After the reaction, in the second image, each unpaired electron in the oxygen joins an electron from one of the hydrogen atoms so that the valence rings are now connected together. The bond that forms between oxygen and hydrogen can also be represented by a dash.
Two or more atoms may bond with each other to form a molecule. When two hydrogens and an oxygen share electrons via covalent bonds, a water molecule is formed.

Chemical reactions occur when two or more atoms bond together to form molecules or when bonded atoms are broken apart. The substances used in the beginning of a chemical reaction are called the reactants (usually found on the left side of a chemical equation), and the substances found at the end of the reaction are known as the products (usually found on the right side of a chemical equation). An arrow is typically drawn between the reactants and products to indicate the direction of the chemical reaction; this direction is not always a “one-way street.” For the creation of the water molecule shown above, the chemical equation would be:

2 H + O   H 2 O

An example of a simple chemical reaction is the breaking down of hydrogen peroxide molecules, each of which consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded to two oxygen atoms (H 2 O 2 ). The reactant hydrogen peroxide is broken down into water, containing one oxygen atom bound to two hydrogen atoms (H 2 O), and oxygen, which consists of two bonded oxygen atoms (O 2 ). In the equation below, the reaction includes two hydrogen peroxide molecules and two water molecules. This is an example of a balanced chemical equation    , wherein the number of atoms of each element is the same on each side of the equation. According to the law of conservation of matter, the number of atoms before and after a chemical reaction should be equal, such that no atoms are, under normal circumstances, created or destroyed.

Questions & Answers

Parkinson's disease is a caused by the degeneration of neurons that release
birabwa Reply
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Eric Reply
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Eric
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Kapalu Reply
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Isaac Reply
It's cells of the blood
Kaique
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Stanley Reply
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Afolayan Reply
name the gas that diffuses into the plants leaves on a bright, sunny day
Tuhemwe Reply
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Tuhemwe
name two gases that diffuses out of the plant's leaves on a bright sunny day
Tuhemwe
Biology olympaid
Khan
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Rondy Reply
why does a car move yet it is not a living thing?
Sserujja
this is because of the engine and fuel placed on
Gift
I also think it because force has been apply to it.
Stanley
It is aplace where organísms live and associate with each other.
Nasib
what is the reason of swelling due to fracture
Ejaz Reply
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Khan
how do animals reproduce
Kelvin Reply
be specific because there are so many types of animals and how they reproduce are different
Sheillah
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Chinwendu
just be specific with a particular animal
Stanley
what happens when you sneeze
Asuquo Reply
The sneeze center sends out a signal to tightly close your throat, eyes and mouth. Your chest muscles contract and compress your lungs while your throat muscles relax. All of that means air, saliva and mucus is forced out of your nose and mouth. AAAAAHHHH-CHOOOO.
Hassan
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Ayouba
hy
Ejaz
hii
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mahesha
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Madu
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Abavon
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Sheillah
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Sheillah
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Sheillah
what is globsl warming
Rondy
Global warming is the overall rise in temperature of the Earth itself which is caused by multiple factors. Such factors include: greenhouse gases, the burning of fossil fuels and other forms of human activity.
Maryam
It's overall effects are known as climate change.
Maryam
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Rondy
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Haider
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Maryam
Thank you.
Maryam
what is creatinine?
Haider
Creatinine is a waste product produced in the body during muscle metabolism. This waste product is expelled from the body through urine. Here is it's formula:  C4H7N3O
Maryam
Formula: C4H7N3O
Maryam
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Stephen
Outline the process of cell in the body interms of it's function.
Aliruku Reply
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Jerda Reply
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james Reply
Biology is the study of life
Omoloju
yah
John
Biology is natural science that studies life and living orgasms.
Hilda
any questions from colleague
Sheillah
define nerve impulse
Karlin Reply
A nerve impulse is the way nerve cells (neurons) communicate with one another. Nerve impulsesare mostly electrical signals along the dendrites to produce a nerve impulse or action potential. The action potential is the result of ions moving in and out of the cell.
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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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