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The periodic table

The different elements are organized and displayed in the periodic table    . Devised by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev (1834–1907) in 1869, the table groups elements that, although unique, share certain chemical properties with other elements. The properties of elements are responsible for their physical state at room temperature: they may be gases, solids, or liquids. Elements also have specific chemical reactivity    , the ability to combine and to chemically bond with each other.

In the periodic table, shown in [link] , the elements are organized and displayed according to their atomic number and are arranged in a series of rows and columns based on shared chemical and physical properties. In addition to providing the atomic number for each element, the periodic table also displays the element’s atomic mass. Looking at carbon, for example, its symbol (C) and name appear, as well as its atomic number of six (in the upper left-hand corner) and its atomic mass of 12.11.

The periodic table consists of eighteen groups and seven periods. Two additional rows of elements, known as the lanthanides and actinides, are placed beneath the main table. The lanthanides include elements 57 through 71 and belong in period seven between groups three and four. The actinides include elements 89 through 98 and belong in period eight between the same groups. These elements are placed separately to make the table more compact. For each element, the name, atomic symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass are provided. The atomic number is a whole number that represents the number of protons. The atomic mass, which is the average mass of different isotopes, is estimated to two decimal places. For example, hydrogen has the atomic symbol H, the atomic number 1, and an atomic mass of 1.01. The atomic mass is always larger that the atomic number. For most small elements, the atomic mass is approximately double the atomic number as the number of protons and neutrons is about equal. The elements are divided into three categories: metals, nonmetals and metalloids. These form a diagonal line from period two, group thirteen to period seven, group sixteen. All elements to the left of the metalloids are metals, and all elements to the right are nonmetals.
The periodic table shows the atomic mass and atomic number of each element. The atomic number appears above the symbol for the element and the approximate atomic mass appears below it.

The periodic table groups elements according to chemical properties. The differences in chemical reactivity between the elements are based on the number and spatial distribution of an atom’s electrons. Atoms that chemically react and bond to each other form molecules. Molecules are simply two or more atoms chemically bonded together. Logically, when two atoms chemically bond to form a molecule, their electrons, which form the outermost region of each atom, come together first as the atoms form a chemical bond.

Electron shells and the bohr model

It should be stressed that there is a connection between the number of protons in an element, the atomic number that distinguishes one element from another, and the number of electrons it has. In all electrically neutral atoms, the number of electrons is the same as the number of protons. Thus, each element, at least when electrically neutral, has a characteristic number of electrons equal to its atomic number.

An early model of the atom was developed in 1913 by Danish scientist Niels Bohr (1885–1962). The Bohr model shows the atom as a central nucleus containing protons and neutrons, with the electrons in circular orbitals at specific distances from the nucleus, as illustrated in [link] . These orbits form electron shells or energy levels, which are a way of visualizing the number of electrons in the outermost shells. These energy levels are designated by a number and the symbol “n.” For example, 1n represents the first energy level located closest to the nucleus.

Three concentric circles around the nucleus of a hydrogen atom represent principal shells. These are named 1n, 2n, and 3n in order of increasing distance from the nucleus. An electron orbits in the shell closest to the nucleus, 1n.
The Bohr model was developed by Niels Bohrs in 1913. In this model, electrons exist within principal shells. An electron normally exists in the lowest energy shell available, which is the one closest to the nucleus. Energy from a photon of light can bump it up to a higher energy shell, but this situation is unstable, and the electron quickly decays back to the ground state. In the process, a photon of light is released.

Questions & Answers

name the gas that diffuses into the plants leaves on a bright, sunny day
Tuhemwe Reply
explain why this gas diffuses into the plant's leaves
Tuhemwe
name two gases that diffuses out of the plant's leaves on a bright sunny day
Tuhemwe
what is ecosystem
Rondy Reply
why does a car move yet it is not a living thing?
Sserujja
what is the reason of swelling due to fracture
Ejaz Reply
how do animals reproduce
Kelvin Reply
be specific because there are so many types of animals and how they reproduce are different
Sheillah
yeah
Chinwendu
what happens when you sneeze
Asuquo Reply
The sneeze center sends out a signal to tightly close your throat, eyes and mouth. Your chest muscles contract and compress your lungs while your throat muscles relax. All of that means air, saliva and mucus is forced out of your nose and mouth. AAAAAHHHH-CHOOOO.
Hassan
how are you
Ayouba
hy
Ejaz
hii
Ishitha
hello
mahesha
Hello
Madu
Am fine
Abavon
how far
Abavon
hello
Sheillah
with why
Sheillah
with what
Sheillah
I have a question plzz
Sheillah
what is globsl warming
Rondy
Global warming is the overall rise in temperature of the Earth itself which is caused by multiple factors. Such factors include: greenhouse gases, the burning of fossil fuels and other forms of human activity.
Maryam
It's overall effects are known as climate change.
Maryam
thanks
Rondy
good
Haider
No problem.
Maryam
Thank you.
Maryam
what is creatinine?
Haider
Creatinine is a waste product produced in the body during muscle metabolism. This waste product is expelled from the body through urine. Here is it's formula:  C4H7N3O
Maryam
Formula: C4H7N3O
Maryam
ok
Haider
ok
Stephen
Outline the process of cell in the body interms of it's function.
Aliruku Reply
what communication method used mainly by plants
Jerda Reply
what is biology
james Reply
Biology is the study of life
Omoloju
define nerve impulse
Karlin Reply
A nerve impulse is the way nerve cells (neurons) communicate with one another. Nerve impulsesare mostly electrical signals along the dendrites to produce a nerve impulse or action potential. The action potential is the result of ions moving in and out of the cell.
Sam
What is the Molecular Biology?
Service Reply
The branch of biology that deals with the structure and function of the macromolecules (e.g. proteins and nucleic acids) essential to life.
Sam
what is botany
Sillah
Description Description Botany, also called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field.
Sam
what is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
Fatima Reply
what is an element
Saidu Reply
Element is any one of the simplest chemical substances that cannot be decomposed in a chemical reaction.
Lucky
an element is a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance
Akosua
explain why only one sperm fertilisers the ovum
Frazzy Reply
its because other sperms are destroyed on the way
Nasib
A test tube is full of a colourless gas that puts a lighted wooden splint.what gas is this?
Jerda
what is cell
Dau Reply
Cell is the smallest unit of life
Yodit
cell refers of the basic, structural and function unit of an organism
jacob
smallest functional unit of an organism
Nasib
is the smallest basic unit of life
Tuhemwe
Is a basic unit of life
James
It's the basic, structural and functional unit of life/living organisms
Ese
explain for me for ecological factors affecting each of aquatic and terrestrial habitats
Ikeh Reply
Temperature, high humidity
Afriyie
50%
Yodit
temperature,light intensity,Co2
Nasib

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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