# 2.1 Atoms, isotopes, ions, and molecules: the building blocks  (Page 2/61)

 Page 2 / 61

Protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass, about 1.67 × 10 -24 grams. Scientists arbitrarily define this amount of mass as one atomic mass unit (amu) or one Dalton, as shown in [link] . Although similar in mass, protons and neutrons differ in their electric charge. A proton    is positively charged whereas a neutron    is uncharged. Therefore, the number of neutrons in an atom contributes significantly to its mass, but not to its charge. Electrons are much smaller in mass than protons, weighing only 9.11 × 10 -28 grams, or about 1/1800 of an atomic mass unit. Hence, they do not contribute much to an element’s overall atomic mass. Therefore, when considering atomic mass, it is customary to ignore the mass of any electrons and calculate the atom’s mass based on the number of protons and neutrons alone. Although not significant contributors to mass, electrons do contribute greatly to the atom’s charge, as each electron has a negative charge equal to the positive charge of a proton. In uncharged, neutral atoms, the number of electrons orbiting the nucleus is equal to the number of protons inside the nucleus. In these atoms, the positive and negative charges cancel each other out, leading to an atom with no net charge.

Accounting for the sizes of protons, neutrons, and electrons, most of the volume of an atom—greater than 99 percent—is, in fact, empty space. With all this empty space, one might ask why so-called solid objects do not just pass through one another. The reason they do not is that the electrons that surround all atoms are negatively charged and negative charges repel each other.

Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
Charge Mass (amu) Location
Proton +1 1 nucleus
Neutron 0 1 nucleus
Electron –1 0 orbitals

## Atomic number and mass

Atoms of each element contain a characteristic number of protons and electrons. The number of protons determines an element’s atomic number    and is used to distinguish one element from another. The number of neutrons is variable, resulting in isotopes, which are different forms of the same atom that vary only in the number of neutrons they possess. Together, the number of protons and the number of neutrons determine an element’s mass number    , as illustrated in [link] . Note that the small contribution of mass from electrons is disregarded in calculating the mass number. This approximation of mass can be used to easily calculate how many neutrons an element has by simply subtracting the number of protons from the mass number. Since an element’s isotopes will have slightly different mass numbers, scientists also determine the atomic mass    , which is the calculated mean of the mass number for its naturally occurring isotopes. Often, the resulting number contains a fraction. For example, the atomic mass of chlorine (Cl) is 35.45 because chlorine is composed of several isotopes, some (the majority) with atomic mass 35 (17 protons and 18 neutrons) and some with atomic mass 37 (17 protons and 20 neutrons).

what if cranium break
it will cause a concussion and may affect the brain
INGIPHILE
what are prokaryotes
Prokaryotes are cells with well defined nucleus or cells with membranes example; Bacteria,Nostoc etc.
Emmanuel
what is bilateral symmetry
Explain kingdom of fungi
what are the nutritional requirement of organism
which part of the alimentary canal were these cross section taken
what is alimentary canal were these cross section taken
Getrude
what is matter
from which part of the alimentary canal were these cross section taken fig 2.1 fig 2.2 b,c
explain the role played by b in the alimentary canal
Getrude
what is biology
what is mitosis
structure of a kidney
explain sexual reproduction of a named flower taking account of pollination, fertilization and the change to seed and fruit.
The study of all life or living matterThe living organisms of a particular region.
what is ology
in which of the following stages of the cell cycle are chromosomes pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell
Anaphase
Jonah