<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis
  • Describe cellular events during meiosis
  • Explain the differences between meiosis and mitosis
  • Explain the mechanisms within meiosis that generate genetic variation among the products of meiosis

Sexual reproduction requires fertilization    , the union of two cells from two individual organisms. If those two cells each contain one set of chromosomes, then the resulting cell contains two sets of chromosomes. Haploid cells contain one set of chromosomes. Cells containing two sets of chromosomes are called diploid. The number of sets of chromosomes in a cell is called its ploidy level. If the reproductive cycle is to continue, then the diploid cell must somehow reduce its number of chromosome sets before fertilization can occur again, or there will be a continual doubling in the number of chromosome sets in every generation. So, in addition to fertilization, sexual reproduction includes a nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosome sets.

Most animals and plants are diploid, containing two sets of chromosomes. In each somatic cell    of the organism (all cells of a multicellular organism except the gametes or reproductive cells), the nucleus contains two copies of each chromosome, called homologous chromosomes. Somatic cells are sometimes referred to as “body” cells. Homologous chromosomes are matched pairs containing the same genes in identical locations along their length. Diploid organisms inherit one copy of each homologous chromosome from each parent; all together, they are considered a full set of chromosomes. Haploid cells, containing a single copy of each homologous chromosome, are found only within structures that give rise to either gametes or spores. Spores are haploid cells that can produce a haploid organism or can fuse with another spore to form a diploid cell. All animals and most plants produce eggs and sperm, or gametes. Some plants and all fungi produce spores.

The nuclear division that forms haploid cells, which is called meiosis    , is related to mitosis. As you have learned, mitosis is the part of a cell reproduction cycle that results in identical daughter nuclei that are also genetically identical to the original parent nucleus. In mitosis, both the parent and the daughter nuclei are at the same ploidy level—diploid for most plants and animals. Meiosis employs many of the same mechanisms as mitosis. However, the starting nucleus is always diploid and the nuclei that result at the end of a meiotic cell division are haploid. To achieve this reduction in chromosome number, meiosis consists of one round of chromosome duplication and two rounds of nuclear division. Because the events that occur during each of the division stages are analogous to the events of mitosis, the same stage names are assigned. However, because there are two rounds of division, the major process and the stages are designated with a “I” or a “II.” Thus, meiosis I    is the first round of meiotic division and consists of prophase I, prometaphase I, and so on. Meiosis II , in which the second round of meiotic division takes place, includes prophase II, prometaphase II, and so on.

Questions & Answers

What is Staining?
Fazal Reply
what is biology
Biology is the study of life
what is biology
Ysabella Reply
biology is a study of living things
Biology is a diverse branch of science that deals with mostly living things
What happen when inhibit the transcription?
what is the effect of not doing sexual intercourse
what is the mechanism of cellular respiration
Rita Reply
what is enzyme
garry Reply
They are organic catalysts that alter the rate of chemical reactions in the body.
meaning they speed up reaction
Enzymes are forms of chemicals that are specialized in their own areas.(eg digestion of food)
what is a cell
Praize Reply
Basic Functional Unit of Life
what is biology
Mordi Reply
biology is the study of living organisms and their interactions with one another and their environments
which of the following event does not occur during some stages of interface?
Bangha Reply
What is microfilaments
KHalid Reply
What is multicellular organisms
Ovie Reply
these are organisms with more than two cells
the process when a male toad fertilizer a female eggs is called what?
Ahrebe Reply
how did unicellular organisms form plants and animals or is it that different unicellular organisms formed plants and animald
YXNG Reply
name the components of faeces
undigested carbohydrate, fibre
what are unicellular organisms..?
they have only one cell
faeces contains many undigested food materials, after the food has been digested then it will be absorbed in the blood stream for assimilation.,......... but the remains toxic materials are stored in the rectum these toxic materials are the faeces and it contains bile salts, the polysaccharides .
unicellular organisms are the ones with only single cell.
thanks for your answers guys.
what is class bryophyta
Emefa Reply
how many stages do we have in glycolysis?
10 stages
the presence of a membrane enclosed nuclosed is a characteristics of what
Addai Reply
eukaryotic cell

Get the best Biology course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Biology' conversation and receive update notifications?