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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes
  • Distinguish between chromosomes, genes, and traits
  • Describe the mechanisms of chromosome compaction

The continuity of life from one cell to another has its foundation in the reproduction of cells by way of the cell cycle. The cell cycle    is an orderly sequence of events that describes the stages of a cell’s life from the division of a single parent cell to the production of two new daughter cells. The mechanisms involved in the cell cycle are highly regulated.

Genomic dna

Before discussing the steps a cell must undertake to replicate, a deeper understanding of the structure and function of a cell’s genetic information is necessary. A cell’s DNA, packaged as a double-stranded DNA molecule, is called its genome    . In prokaryotes, the genome is composed of a single, double-stranded DNA molecule in the form of a loop or circle ( [link] ). The region in the cell containing this genetic material is called a nucleoid. Some prokaryotes also have smaller loops of DNA called plasmids that are not essential for normal growth. Bacteria can exchange these plasmids with other bacteria, sometimes receiving beneficial new genes that the recipient can add to their chromosomal DNA. Antibiotic resistance is one trait that often spreads through a bacterial colony through plasmid exchange.

The illustration shows a prokaryotic cell with a single, circular chromosome floating free in the cytoplasm.
Prokaryotes, including bacteria and archaea, have a single, circular chromosome located in a central region called the nucleoid.

In eukaryotes, the genome consists of several double-stranded linear DNA molecules ( [link] ). Each species of eukaryotes has a characteristic number of chromosomes in the nuclei of its cells. Human body cells have 46 chromosomes, while human gametes (sperm or eggs) have 23 chromosomes each. A typical body cell, or somatic cell, contains two matched sets of chromosomes, a configuration known as diploid    . The letter n is used to represent a single set of chromosomes; therefore, a diploid organism is designated 2 n . Human cells that contain one set of chromosomes are called gametes, or sex cells; these are eggs and sperm, and are designated 1n , or haploid    .

The 23 chromosomes from a human female are each dyed a different color so they can be distinguished. During most of the cell cycle, each chromosome is elongated into a thin strand that folds over on itself, like a piece of spaghetti.  The chromosomes fill the entire spherical nucleus, but each one is contained in a different part, resulting in a multi-colored sphere. During mitosis, the chromosomes condense into thick, compact bars, each a different color. These bars can be arranged in numerical order to form a karyotype. There are two copies of each chromosome in the karyotype..
There are 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes in a female human somatic cell. The condensed chromosomes are viewed within the nucleus (top), removed from a cell in mitosis and spread out on a slide (right), and artificially arranged according to length (left); an arrangement like this is called a karyotype. In this image, the chromosomes were exposed to fluorescent stains for differentiation of the different chromosomes. A method of staining called “chromosome painting” employs fluorescent dyes that highlight chromosomes in different colors. (credit: National Human Genome Project/NIH)

Matched pairs of chromosomes in a diploid organism are called homologous (“same knowledge”) chromosomes . Homologous chromosomes are the same length and have specific nucleotide segments called genes in exactly the same location, or locus    . Genes, the functional units of chromosomes, determine specific characteristics by coding for specific proteins. Traits are the variations of those characteristics. For example, hair color is a characteristic with traits that are blonde, brown, or black.

Questions & Answers

what is cell
Saleh Reply
the cell wall is targeted
Rebel Reply
what is rispiration
Liaquat Reply
transpiration in organism
what is biology mean?
Nickey Reply
bio means life logy means study . study about life . physiology. morphology . anatomy and others organisms related topics is termed as biology
Biology is the study life. that the study about living organism
Biology is derived from two Greek words "Bio" "Logos" Bio means life, Logos means study.... So Biology is the study of life
means the study of life
what do you mean by cocervates ?
what is oxidation?
Rose Reply
 the state or result of being oxidized
hahahaha thanks, but my teachers requires a thorough meaning about that
Is the process of oxidizing ,the addition of oxygen to a compound with a loss of electrons, always accompanied by reduction
loss of electron....
thank you. 😊
thank you. 😊
thank you. 😊
what is oxidized
the process or result of oxidizing or being oxidized.
my pleasure
Google itttt.....if need explanation
to rose...
oxidation is the removal of oxygen addition of hydrogen
what is genetic
Chibawa Reply
genetic is the study of inheritance and variation
Nice one genetic is the scientific study of heredity and variation in living organism
Genetic : generally is the scientific study of heredity and variation in living thing .
is the basic structural of inheritance
name the enzymes that i found in the saliva
Valuables Reply
salivary amylase
draw a bacterium cell and label
Kadijah Reply
What are the osmoregulatory functions of the kidney?
bisi Reply
What is ecology
Hebert Reply
it is the study of interaction of living organisms with their environment.
what is cell
Etama Reply
cell is the basic unit of life
cell is the basic structural and functional unit of an living organism
a cell is the smallest and most basic unit of a living thing
cell is the basic unit of life. we are made up of 60,000 billions of cells.Each cell carry out a specific function in the body.
A cell is the smallest basic functioning unit of life.
where is the pectoral gridle located?
Tiania Reply
What is hypotonic
Bright Reply
what is hypotonic
Hypotonic means weak solution
the difference between the two cells
Obeng Reply
explain the courses and the correction of lon term sightedness and short term sightedness
Isaac Reply
long sightedness is said to be like someone that can see far object clearly why short sightedness is someone that only can see near obect

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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