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Talcott, R. “How the Solar System Came to Be.” Astronomy (November 2012): 24. On the formation period of the Sun and the planets.

Young, E. “Cloudy with a Chance of Stars.” Scientific American (February 2010): 34. On how clouds of interstellar matter turn into star systems.

Websites

Meteors and Meteorites

American Meteor Society: http://www.amsmeteors.org/. For serious observers.

British and Irish Meteorite Society: http://www.bimsociety.org/meteorites1.shtml.

Meteor Showers Online: http://meteorshowersonline.com/. By Gary Kronk.

Meteorite Information: http://www.meteorite-information.com/. A great collection of links for understanding and even collecting meteorites.

Meteorites from Mars: http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/snc/. A listing and links from the Jet Propulsion Lab.

Meteors and Meteor Showers: http://www.astronomy.com/observing/observe-the-solar-system/2010/04/meteors-and-meteor-showers. From Astronomy magazine.

Meteors: http://www.skyandtelescope.com/observing/celestial-objects-to-watch/meteors/. A collection of articles on meteor observing from Sky&Telescope magazine.

Nine Planets Meteorites and Meteors Page: http://nineplanets.org/meteorites.html.

Some Interesting Meteorite Falls of the Last Two Centuries: http://www.icq.eps.harvard.edu/meteorites-1.html.

Evolution of the Solar System and Protoplanetary Disks

Circumstellar Disk Learning Site: http://www.disksite.com/. By Dr. Paul Kalas.

Disk Detective Project: http://www.diskdetective.org/. The WISE mission is asking the public to help them find protoplanetary disks in their infrared data.

Videos

Meteors and Meteorites

Meteorites and Meteor-wrongs: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQO335Y3zXo. Video with Dr. Randy Korotev of Washington U. in St. Louis (7:05).

Rare Meteorites from London’s Natural History Museum: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-Rsk-ywN44. A tour of the meteorite collection with curator Caroline Smith (18:22). Also see a short news piece about a martian meteorite: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1EMR2r53f2s (2:54).

What Is a Meteor Shower (and How to Watch Them): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xNmgvlwInCA. Top tips for watching meteor showers from the At-Bristol Science Center (3:18).

Evolution of the Solar System and Protoplanetary Disks

Origins of the Solar System: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/origins-solar-system.html. Video from Nova ScienceNow narrated by Neil deGrasse Tyson (13:02).

Where Do Planets Come From?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdIJUdZWlXo. Public talk by Anjali Tripathi in March 2016 in the Center for Astrophysics Observatory Nights Series (56:14).

Collaborative group activities

  1. Ever since the true (cosmic) origin of meteorites was understood, people have tried to make money selling them to museums and planetariums. More recently, a growing number of private collectors have been interested in purchasing meteorite fragments, and a network of dealers (some more reputable than others) has sprung up to meet this need. What does your group think of all this? Who should own a meteorite? The person on whose land it falls, the person who finds it, or the local, state, or federal government where it falls? What if it falls on public land? Should there be any limit to what people charge for meteorites? Or should all meteorites be the common property of humanity? (If you can, try to research what the law is now in your area. See, for example, http://www.space.com/18009-meteorite-collectors-public-lands-rules.html.)
  2. Your group has been formed to advise a very rich person who wants to buy some meteorites but is afraid of being cheated and sold some Earth rocks. How would you advise your client to make sure that the meteorites she buys are authentic?
  3. Your group is a committee set up to give advice to NASA about how to design satellites and telescopes in space to minimize the danger of meteor impacts. Remember that the heavier a satellite is, the harder (more expensive) it is to launch. What would you include in your recommendations?
  4. Discuss what you would do if you suddenly found that a small meteorite had crashed in or near your home. Whom would you call first, second, third? What would you do with the sample? (And would any damage to your home be covered by your insurance?)
  5. A friend of your group really wants to see a meteor shower. The group becomes a committee to assist her in fulfilling this desire. What time of year would be best? What equipment would you recommend she gets? What advice would you give her?
  6. Work with your group to find a table of the phases of the Moon for the next calendar year. Then look at the table of well-known meteor showers in this chapter and report on what phase the Moon will be in during each shower. (The brighter the Moon is in the night sky, the harder it is to see the faint flashes of meteors.)
  7. Thinking that all giant planets had to be far from their stars (because the ones in our solar system are) is an example of making theories without having enough data (or examples). Can your group make a list of other instances in science (and human relations) where we have made incorrect judgments without having explored enough examples?
  8. Have your group list and then discuss several ways in which the discovery of a diverse group of exoplanets (planets orbiting other stars) has challenged our conventional view of the formation of planetary systems like our solar system.

Thought questions

What methods do scientists use to distinguish a meteorite from terrestrial material?

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Why do iron meteorites represent a much higher percentage of finds than of falls?

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Why is it more useful to classify meteorites according to whether they are primitive or differentiated rather than whether they are stones, irons, or stony-irons?

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Which meteorites are the most useful for defining the age of the solar system? Why?

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Suppose a new primitive meteorite is discovered (sometime after it falls in a field of soybeans) and analysis reveals that it contains a trace of amino acids, all of which show the same rotational symmetry (unlike the Murchison meteorite). What might you conclude from this finding?

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How do we know when the solar system formed? Usually we say that the solar system is 4.5 billion years old. To what does this age correspond?

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We have seen how Mars can support greater elevation differences than Earth or Venus. According to the same arguments, the Moon should have higher mountains than any of the other terrestrial planets, yet we know it does not. What is wrong with applying the same line of reasoning to the mountains on the Moon?

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Present theory suggests that giant planets cannot form without condensation of water ice, which becomes vapor at the high temperatures close to a star. So how can we explain the presence of jovian-sized exoplanets closer to their star than Mercury is to our Sun?

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Why are meteorites of primitive material considered more important than other meteorites? Why have most of them been found in Antarctica?

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Figuring for yourself

How long would material take to go around if the solar nebula in [link] became the size of Earth’s orbit?

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Consider the differentiated meteorites. We think the irons are from the cores, the stony-irons are from the interfaces between mantles and cores, and the stones are from the mantles of their differentiated parent bodies. If these parent bodies were like Earth, what fraction of the meteorites would you expect to consist of irons, stony-irons, and stones? Is this consistent with the observed numbers of each? (Hint: You will need to look up what percent of the volume of Earth is taken up by its core, mantle, and crust.)

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Estimate the maximum height of the mountains on a hypothetical planet similar to Earth but with twice the surface gravity of our planet.

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Questions & Answers

are there aliens in the universe?
Lesego Reply
might be possible but there is no true evidence of it.we can only assume because we don't know the exact size of universe,it's infinite,so possibilities always shown is in infinite.
Near
Why does traveling at close to light speed or being near super dense objects cause time to dilate?
Andrew Reply
good question. time is only what we made it. the way light travels with and without gravity has always been a wonder to me.
Collins
What do you mean without gravity?
Andrew
I'm actually not sure, this might be a silly question but does gravity effect light in respect to time?
Collins
what is the definitions of planet
Mitrajit Reply
A celestial body orbiting around a star
Asim
How to appear for MCQ in this app
nitisha Reply
I l don't understand questions
Nkateko Reply
which quesrions?
Ankit
let it be
nitisha
How to make a telescope
Amit Reply
***youtube.com/channel/UClBN_RpR5X8IdrARwnaL3fg
Steve
***wikihow.com/Make-a-Telescope
Jennifer
optical mechanics
Astro
aptical
Nkateko
Which one has the ring
Isaac Reply
Saturn venue and even Jupiter all have rings the rings on Jupiter, however, aren't so easily noticed due to them only being viable through infrared
Hunter
visible *
Hunter
they each have three rings but not as you might think just think of them all as one big ring because that's basically what they are but they are desperate individual rings
Hunter
separate*
Hunter
can you tell me what is a quantam elighment? Lets see how many people give write answers
gdjm Reply
can you tell me what is a fomalhaut?
gdjm
Fomalhaut Is The Brightest Star In The Constalellation Of Piscis Austrinus.....
Adam
joe.
Tracy
Do You Mean Quantum Entanglement?
Adam
yes
gdjm
No Adam fomalhaut mean eye of universe
gdjm
quantum entanglement is when a husband has been married so long to his wife that he is directly influenced by her action usually in an opposite way. 🤣
Jocofranc
It Is Also The Brightest Star Of The The Constalellation Of Piscis Austrinus.....
Adam
who was the first person to get to the planet
Isaac
Is 5 dimensional exists
Asim
can anyone tell me daily rotation of the sun in tokyo
Liridona Reply
tokyo has it's own personal sun
Tracy
can you send me any pictures of the tokyo sun
Liridona
sure! ig?
Tracy
here can u?
Liridona
no it wont let me sadly
Tracy
or
Liridona
snapchat
Liridona
i dont have snapchat 😰
Tracy
okay ig
Liridona
my ig is fatwigga37 if you'd like to see :)
Tracy
Can we use SI units in the equation of Kepler's third law?
Naiyu Reply
can u tell the equation pls
sasmita
how does religion enters to this topic when god created this world
Sakira
How Do You Know A God Created Our Planet?
Adam
you must read bible
Sakira
u must the bible
Sakira
How Do You That Book Is Authentic? And I Have Read The Bible, The Koran, The Torah And The Urantia.....
Adam
The law is T^2 is proportional to R^3 where t is planet's time period and r is average of semi major axis and semi minor axis. Also,don't turn this place into a religious warzone. We already have idiots fighting about religion.
priyanshu
If I Had A Book That Said Insects Created The Universe, Would That Make It Fact?
Adam
Have You Ever Heard Of The Council Of Nicaea?
Adam
Through Out History Mankind Has Worshipped Over 5000 Different Gods, How Do You Know Christ Is The True God?
Adam
God Is A Hypothesis..... The Definition Of Faith Is Belief Without Proof.....
Adam
Thank You Prianshu Roy, This Is A Forum For Science Not Archaic Stories Written By Sheep Herders, Well Said.....
Adam
Hebrew 13:1
onome
P2 = a3
Adam
So You Quote A Bible Verse, Now What?
Adam
Science Discourse Nothing Else.....
Adam
god is real he's not just a wise guess
Sakira
god bless you
Sakira
u know what,u are not here if god werent there!
Sakira
Science Discourse, Nothing Else.....
Adam
Thier Are Many Religious Sites You Can Go To, To Discuss God.....
Adam
hahahaha
Sakira
Have A Great Day.....
Adam
night time here
Sakira
Look Up The Definition Of Day, Instead Of Trying To Look Witty, Again Have A Great Day.....
Adam
😈😈😈
Sakira
such an socratic person?
Sakira
What Was Your Intention In Stating "Night Time Here" ?
Adam
please don't fight over silly stuffs!
Romancho
tangina mo
Sakira
No I Don't Believe A God Exist, But I Will Fight For Your Right To Worship Any God You Wish.....
Adam
no fighting
Sakira
But This Venue Is For Science Discourse.....
Adam
i know!
Sakira
No Fighting, Just Discussion.....
Adam
yes Naiyu, we have to use SI unit in the equation for the Kepler's every laws
Madhav
Thanks.
Naiyu
wow
Kenneth
Tell me about nebula
Asim
How it is created
Asim
Its a dust cloud of hydrogen
Asim
a nebula is usually formed when a star ends its life cycle
Chris
Ok
Asim
And its working?
Asim
When the time comes, most stars run out of available hydrogen they have for nuclear fusion
Chris
When that happens there is no more equilibrium between pressure and gravity
Chris
So there is no more pressure to balance the gravitational force, therefore a star collapses into its own core, and then the amount of matter inside the core is so large that the star explodes into a nebula
Chris
its a beautiful view, but very dangerous, the amount of radation is really big
Chris
Look it up on google, there are explanations better than mine
Chris
Ok thanks
Asim
what is your zodiac ?
Jenny
Gravity is the force that is formed due to the big mass of an object. The bigger is the mass, the bigger is the gravity. That is why the Earth attracts humans or small things. If We were bigger than the planet Earth we would have attracted it.
Lemisa
Tell me about white dwarf and red dwarf in simple words
Asim
what's the scene of voyager 1,did we get any information through it
Aarushi Reply
we are getting a lot of info yet more to be received check official mission report from the officials site ....
Ganeshan
what are the best astronomy books?
neehar Reply
what is the parallel space?
neehar
A brief history of time
Asim
planet and stars by Jay M. Pasachoff skyguide by wimmer chartrand
Minireet
how to measure the brightness of a star in w\m^2
Aarushi Reply
it's based on the percentage of helium I think
neehar
ok TQ😊
Aarushi
it's based planet colour and brightness which called lumiosity
gdjm
Are there planets that has the same characteristics as earth.
Nito Reply
yes ofcourse there are earth like planets but they aren't completely like earth.still scientists have a hope of life existence in there.
Aarushi
yeah of course example is Mars but they only discover water at mars
neehar
there's a much possibility of presence of earth like planets in the universe if they were present at goldilock zones
Jashwanth
what are goldilock zones?
Aarushi
why yes there are planets just like earth out there somewhere we know that much for sure given the number of planets in the galaxy, as a matter of fact, one of Jupiter moons officially named "gamamede" is very much like earth in size and characteristics
Hunter
How to become an astronomy
Aakarsh Reply
astronomer*
Emilya
Yes
Aakarsh
Astronomer
Aakarsh
yes i Also want to know the answer
Mehar
How to become?
Aakarsh
Me too
Romancho
By hard study
Zulker
Try to keep all the basics of science subjects and also English
Zulker
Ya i know that I will do hard work but
Aakarsh
I have always found astronomy fascinating, but my first love is philosophy.
GARY
I wanna become astromer as neel armstrang
Aakarsh
that's an astronaut
Emilya
Neil Armstrong
antman
what is your name who are you where are you why are you there
GARY
Neil Armstrong was an astronaut. You first work is to know the meaning of astrophysicist, astronomer, astronaut, astrologer and to find the work of the individual. And the most important thing is to be good in English. Because u have done some mistakes while doing chat with me like :an astronomer
Zulker
sorry I'm talking to somebody else someplace else on the internet
GARY
The heading will be "How to become an astronomer"
Zulker
jus be yourself and follow your passion and I think there is no need to copy anyone
Aarushi
hey it's simple yaar, it's based on your curiosity
neehar

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Source:  OpenStax, Astronomy. OpenStax CNX. Apr 12, 2017 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11992/1.13
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