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Nicolaus Copernicus introduced the heliocentric cosmology to Renaissance Europe in his book De Revolutionibus . Although he retained the Aristotelian idea of uniform circular motion, Copernicus suggested that Earth is a planet and that the planets all circle about the Sun, dethroning Earth from its position at the center of the universe. Galileo was the father of both modern experimental physics and telescopic astronomy. He studied the acceleration of moving objects and, in 1610, began telescopic observations, discovering the nature of the Milky Way, the large-scale features of the Moon, the phases of Venus, and four moons of Jupiter. Although he was accused of heresy for his support of heliocentric cosmology, Galileo is credited with observations and brilliant writings that convinced most of his scientific contemporaries of the reality of the Copernican theory.

For further exploration

Articles

Ancient Astronomy

Gingerich, O. “From Aristarchus to Copernicus.” Sky&Telescope (November 1983): 410.

Gingerich, O. “Islamic Astronomy.” Scientific American (April 1986): 74.

Astronomy and Astrology

Fraknoi, A. “Your Astrology Defense Kit.” Sky&Telescope (August 1989): 146.

Copernicus and Galileo

Gingerich, O. “Galileo and the Phases of Venus.” Sky&Telescope (December 1984): 520.

Gingerich, O. “How Galileo Changed the Rules of Science.” Sky&Telescope (March 1993): 32.

Maran, S., and Marschall, L. “The Moon, the Telescope, and the Birth of the Modern World.” Sky&Telescope (February 2009): 28.

Sobel, D. “The Heretic’s Daughter: A Startling Correspondence Reveals a New Portrait of Galileo.” The New Yorker (September 13, 1999): 52.

Websites

Ancient Astronomy

Aristarchos of Samos: http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/JRASC/0075//0000029.000.html. By Dr. Alan Batten.

Claudius Ptolemy: http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Ptolemy.html. An interesting biography.

Hipparchus of Rhodes: http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Hipparchus.html. An interesting biography.

Astronomy and Astrology

Astrology and Science: http://www.astrology-and-science.com/hpage.htm. The best site for a serious examination of the issues with astrology and the research on whether it works.

Real Romance in the Stars: http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/the-real-romance-in-the-stars-1527970.html. 1995 newspaper commentary attacking astrology.

Copernicus and Galileo

Galileo Galilei: http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Galileo.html. A good biography with additional links.

Galileo Project: http://galileo.rice.edu/. Rice University’s repository of information on Galileo.

Nicolaus Copernicus: http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Copernicus.html. A biography including links to photos about his life.

Videos

Astronomy and Astrology

Astrology Debunked: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y84HX2pMo5U. A compilation of scientists and magicians commenting skeptically on astrology (9:09).

Copernicus and Galileo

Galileo: http://www.biography.com/people/galileo-9305220. A brief biography (2:51).

Galileo’s Battle for the Heavens: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VnEH9rbrIkk. A NOVA episode on PBS (1:48:55)

Questions & Answers

wow some more than information
Rajeshwari Reply
since space gets bigger dose it affect distance between the sun and earth
Swazi Reply
yes the distance between earth and sun increase at a rate of 15 cm per year
Tanmay
ohh really I didn't knew that , you learn something new everyday
NARUTO
true
Tanmay
What's difference between Astronomy and Astrophysics?
Gurjinder Reply
Actually astrophysics is one of the many branches of astronomy. It usually deals with the mathematical calculations of predicting the motions of heavenly bodies and also it studies the evolution of our universe by using physics.
Debabrata
So is there any observational astrophysics?
Gurjinder
Yes there are 2 types of astrophysicsist one is theoretical and other one is observational. I don't know about astrophysics though
Tanmay
Thanks
Gurjinder
welcome
Tanmay
😊
Gurjinder
Is there a way for us to find out that we are in a simulation or not?
Tanmay Reply
I think mathematics is a key
Arghyabindu
If we are in a simulation then I don't think that the super intelligent species which is controlling this simulation will give us any hint about how to know it.
Debabrata
There has to be some kind of bugs even a carefully designed app has some bugs in our world
Tanmay
Yeah.... There might be some loophole in their programme code.... And who knows.... We could find the bugs in a super massive black hole
Debabrata
But here we are talking about a very very very massive simulation by a very advanced species...... So they might ve already planned on how to deal with all the bugs and glitches
Debabrata
There's a really interesting theory that states even if we are in a simulation, it would be coded in such a way that as soon as one of us (a sentient being inside the simulation) had the slightest hint/evidence that we were in a simulation, the simulation would be edited to remove that information
ben
(I keep commenting on posts and they just dont post sometimes, does anyone else have this problem or should I just delete the app?)
ben
same happened to me but I see yours))
NARUTO
(ah well it must just be a little problem with the app, cheers for letting me know 🙌)
ben
(Well never happened to me though it takes some time to post large messages)
Tanmay
I saw a comment where he told that the universe is a game and finding it's nature is the level as soon as we find its nature the universe collapse and make another universe with more complex nature and this continues
Tanmay
(ahh that may be what it is actually because it is only the longer messages, thanks for letting us know)
ben
That was really a unique way of seeing the universe
Tanmay
Impractical way are there such as leaving your mortal body and entering to the astral body....cons of this idea is you can't tell us what you have saw or feel in that endemic confrontation
Arghyabindu
what a friend told me now
Arghyabindu
We are just a component of the universe trying to understand the other components of the universe...... So I guess that sometimes it makes the matter more and more complicated
Debabrata
what a friend told me now
Arghyabindu
Wait if we are in a simulation then does that means our future is predicted and we can't change it like some kind of rpg game
Tanmay
Yes IF we are in a simulation then definitely the future is already programmed..... But it may be in early access stage..... And the future might not be written at the moment.
Debabrata
so we can do time travel upto the point where our future is written
Tanmay
Maybe or may not be..... Depending on the script or program written in the simulation..... The intelligent species should be controlling every step we take and every thought that come into our mind.
Debabrata
Have you seen sword art online anime?
Tanmay
well never mind it's just repeated stuff
Tanmay
Nah.... I don't watch anime
Debabrata
ok
Tanmay
hii guyz
Lambent
Hey
Debabrata
BLM ✊🏾✊🏾✊🏾
Laila
?
Kilten
which is the biggest star in the universe? if anyone know answer,please reply.
Ciffee Reply
which is the biggest star. ?
Ciffee
u y scuti
Sunidhi
sun
Konica
for our galaxy
Konica
what are the branches of astronomy?
SCIENCE Reply
So there are literary many branches of astronomy like- Radio astronomy, Ultraviolet astronomy, X ray astronomy, etc. (just imagine the electromagnetic spectrum) There's also Astrophysics (My favorite), astro chemistry, astrobiology, astro geology, planetary science, astrometry
Debabrata
factors that contribute to the development of ancient astronomy to modern astronomy
Andrea Reply
When will be we found them?I am so waiting.
why is a supernova
pooja Reply
well there are different types of supernovas. there is a type 1a supernova and that happens when a white dwarf reaches the mass of 1.4 of the sun. A type 2 supernova is when a high mass star starts to fuse iron in the core and the star collapse then expands to create that supernova
PopularHellboy
what is time.!
Samyak Reply
92 billion light years
The
4th Dimension
The
time is illusion
Ciffee
Time is a way of describing an event happened in our 3D world
Tanmay
Why are the largest visible-light telescopes in the world made with mirrors rather than lenses?
Nibha Reply
What is a charge-coupled device (CCD), and how is it used in astronomy?
Nibha
Why is it difficult to observe at infrared wavelengths? What do astronomers do to address this difficulty?
Nibha
not sure what a CCD.
PopularHellboy
(also, lenses have are more problematic over larger distances due to the way different wavelengths of light act within glass. Red and blue light wavelength differs by about 300nm, and so the refraction will affect them differently, whereas when reflecting on a mirror, this is not a problem)
ben
hi
Zalka
i'm from Indonesian
Zalka
(I tried posting this before but this app doesn't seem to work properly) A CCD essentially works as a camera. It's made from an array of capacitors (which make up the 'pixels'). When an incident photon hits the 'pixel', the charge generated is measured and can be translated into an image we can view
ben
the reason mirrors are more common than lenses (on large scale telescopes) is because it is a lot easier and cheaper to make a parabolic mirror than it is to make a perfect glass lens
ben
Because Refracting Telescope cause Cromatic abberetion.
Tushar
Just reading along. I can't see the end of the page so commenting to move it up.
Eva
same. but mirrors are also made with great efficiency and calculation for trapping the light
Konica
How might Venus’ atmosphere have evolved to its present state through a runaway greenhouse effect?
Nibha Reply
what is synchrotron radiation
Nibha
I am 15 and I got interested in astronomy. Can anyone tell me the basics that I must know?
Vikky Reply
you can start by studying the theories of astronomy. there is light and the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. from there you learn about waves and how we as astronomers received information from space. then you can learn about the nebula hypothesis and also about our solar system
PopularHellboy
but if you learn about the foundation of light and the dually of nature with it and the Doppler effect, it will apply to most stuff in astronomy
PopularHellboy
heyy @populadHellboy can you tell me from where can I find this Light and The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation ? I mean is there any course ?
Sagar
I mean I learn astronomy in college with astronomy 101 and 102 I'm sure if you search online for YouTube videos or blogs they can help you with that. try crash course on YouTube for an introduction
PopularHellboy
Currently preparing for olympiad, is there any online resources for Astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology? If there's any past question papers i'll be delighted. I'm currently using Principle and Practice and Introduction To Modern Astrophysics..
Aditya
what is time
Sourav
how big is a parsec
David Reply
I believe it's about 3.086 x 10^16 meters. You can try converting 1 radian to 1 arc secs, multiply with 1 AU, convert it to meter.
Aditya
Its 31 trillion km
Asim
very big
Ciffee
please, friends, tell me about atoms
etsegenet Reply
Atoms are the building blocks of everything you see
Simnein
I know that but I want details about atoms like nucleus, protons, neutrons.....
etsegenet
So the atomic nuclei of atoms are made up of protons and neutrons.
Simnein
In a proton, (+) charge particle has 2up quarks and 1 down quark
Simnein
The spins of these quarks are responsible for outcome of the elements or atoms
Simnein
I didn't include the electron(-),which is a lepton
Simnein
I'm sure you already know about the (-) charged particle
Simnein
thank you, for that but I need more information.
etsegenet
What do you want to know specifically?
Simnein
All about atoms
etsegenet
What do you already know
Simnein
how atoms made things, structure of atoms......, but I want to know all about atoms.
etsegenet
And I want to know how did they react.
etsegenet
Can you tell me?
etsegenet
And tell me books I will read them if it is free.
etsegenet
"how did they react" That's chemistry (you can download chemistry book apps) The valence electrons are the electrons that cause chemical bonds... making elements.
Simnein
During the big bang, let's say 10sec after electrons were moving to fast to bind making atomic nuclei. Once temperatures dropped electrons were able, making the first atom Hydrogen (H)
Simnein
There're also too kinds of valence electron bonds. Covalent, which is when an atom losses an electron to make a bond and ionic, when an atom gains an electron to make a bond.
Simnein
Are atoms living or non living? if non -living then how do they (electrons) move and how can living matter be composed of non -living matter like proteins ?
Surinder
And please explain the definition of candela on advanced basis .
Surinder
Atoms are non-living. There are 5 characteristics the define all life.
Simnein
thnx
Surinder
can you tell me those ?..and how living matter can be composed of non living matter
Surinder
A candela is a unit or a vector quantity of the intensity of the visible light section of the electromagnetic spectrum
Simnein
what is electromagnetic spectrum ?
Surinder
The measurement(candela) of light's intensity is in metric units or (SI)units
Simnein
The electromagnetic spectrum is a model developed by physics to show the nature of light
Simnein
Light is electromagnetism. The light your eyes can see is called visible light. I'm sure you know x-rays, and radio waves
Simnein
Those are all light; only radio waves, gammy rays ect our eyes can't see.
Simnein
ok. one more thing
Surinder
what is avogadro law ?
Surinder
Avogardo's law is an experimental gas law. Experimental gas laws are used to measure the change of a property of gas in respects to another property remaining the same.
Simnein
Laws can be spoken or written algrebricly. V¹÷N¹=V²÷N²
Simnein
there is a statement:" 2 volumes of hydrogen and 1 volume of oxygen to form 2 volumes of water "" what does 2 volumes of water mean ?
Surinder
VOLUME OF OXYGEN *combine * TO
Surinder
"2 Volumes of water" is simply referring an object being filled with H²0
Simnein
Also it could read 2 volumes of hydrogen atoms
Simnein
I didn't get it
Surinder
The volume of O= The amount of space O can contain of an object
Simnein
Do you still want to know the characteristics that define life Ms.Kaur?
Simnein
no
Surinder
thank you so much for solving my problem....I got that!
Surinder
okay . thanks for this ...
Surinder
Atoms are indivisible particles.. Quarks are indivisible particles..
FAWZAN
Atoms are indivisible as it is told by Dalton
FAWZAN
Quarks are indivisible as told my modern scientists.
FAWZAN
Mr.Mohamed quick correction; Atoms or elements are divisible into quarks
Simnein
quarks are apart of the standard model which has 17 particles/waves
Simnein
hi
Astroker
and according to string theory all such particles are tiny loops of vibrating string
Astroker
is the horoscope still being used, and during this era of the origins of astrology was Pluto, Ceres, Makemake, Eris and Haumea included..?
Mind Reply
the real science is ASTRONOMY . THE STUDY OF STARS AND CELESTRIAL BODIES.
Konica
yeah! right
Lambent

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Source:  OpenStax, Astronomy. OpenStax CNX. Apr 12, 2017 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11992/1.13
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