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In other words, if matter in the accretion disk is continually being depleted by falling into the black hole or being blown out from the galaxy in the form of jets, then a quasar can continue to radiate only as long as new gas is available to replenish the accretion disk.

In fact, there was more gas around to be accreted early in the history of the universe. Back then, most gas had not yet collapsed to form stars, so there was more fuel available for both the feeding of black holes and the forming of new stars. Much of that fuel was subsequently consumed in the formation of stars during the first few billion years after the universe began its expansion. Later in its life, a galaxy would have little left to feed a hungry black hole or to form more new stars. As we see from [link] , both star formation and black hole growth peaked together when the universe was about 2 billion years old. Ever since, both have been in sharp decline. We are late to the party of the galaxies and have missed some of the early excitement.

Observations of nearer galaxies (seen later in time) indicate that there is another source of fuel for the central black holes—the collision of galaxies. If two galaxies of similar mass collide and merge, or if a smaller galaxy is pulled into a larger one, then gas and dust from one may come close enough to the black hole in the other to be devoured by it and so provide the necessary fuel. Astronomers have found that collisions were also much more common early in the history of the universe than they are today. There were more small galaxies in those early times because over time, as we shall see (in The Evolution and Distribution of Galaxies ), small galaxies tend to combine into larger ones. Again, this means that we would expect to see more quasars long ago (far away) than we do today (nearby)—as we in fact do.

Codependence of black holes and galaxies

Once black hole    masses began to be measured reliably in the late 1990s, they posed an enigma. It looked as though the mass of the central black hole depended on the mass of the galaxy. The black holes in galaxies always seem to be just 1/200 the mass of the galaxy they live in. This result is shown schematically in [link] , and some of the observations are plotted in [link] .

Relationship between black hole mass and the mass of the host galaxy.

In this plot the vertical axis is labeled “Black Hole Mass”. The scale goes from “No black hole” at bottom, “One million solar masses” in the middle and “One billion solar masses” at top. The horizontal axis is labeled: “Mass of Central Bulge”. The scale is arbitrary, with an arrow pointing to the right labeled “Increasing”. A straight white line is drawn from lower left to upper right with illustrations of galaxies along its length. At bottom left is a small spiral galaxy. Moving upward along the line, the galaxies increase in size as do the black dots at the center of each representing black holes. The final image at upper right is a very large elliptical with a very large black hole.
Observations show that there is a close correlation between the mass of the black hole at the center of a galaxy and the mass of the spherical distribution of stars that surrounds the black hole. That spherical distribution may be in the form of either an elliptical galaxy or the central bulge of a spiral galaxy. (credit: modification of work by K. Cordes, S. Brown (STScI))

Correlation between the mass of the central black hole and the mass contained within the bulge of stars surrounding the black hole, using data from real galaxies.

In this plot the vertical axis is labeled “Black Hole Mass” in solar masses. It is a logarithmic scale ranging from 106 at bottom to 1010 at top, in increments of 10n+1. The horizontal axis is labeled “Mass of Central Bulge” in solar masses. It is a logarithmic scale ranging from 109 at left to 1012 at right, in increments of 10n+1. The data (and the dashed line fitting the data) runs straight from lower left to upper right. The legend at upper right describes the data points: blue stars for “Stars/Early-type BCG”, orange stars for “Stars/Early-type non-BCG”, green dots for “Gas/Early-type BCG” and red dots for “Gas/Early-type non-BCG”.
The black hole always turns out to be about 1/200 the mass of the stars surrounding it. The horizontal and vertical bars surrounding each point show the uncertainty of the measurement. (credit: modification of work by Nicholas J. McConnell, Chung-Pei Ma, “Revisiting the Scaling Relations of Black Hole Masses and Host Galaxy Properties,” The Astrophysical Journal , 764:184 (14 pp.), February 20, 2013.)

Questions & Answers

why the dark side of moon never face us? because moon dont rotate? why tho
Rishabh Reply
im in 8th standard and my school teach us nothing about astronomy but i want to be an astronomer so i study from youtube and apps like this but sometimes i get language problems
Rishabh
dark**
Glory
side**
Glory
The Moon does actually rotate. It takes 27 days for the Moon to make a full rotation. Because it takes it so long and the Earth is rotating around the sun, it seems like the Moon is pretty much standing still. That's called "synchronous rotation".
steveh259
I ment to say "The Earth is orbiting around the sun"
steveh259
Tidal Locked.....
Adam
***svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4442
Collins
thats cool
Gospel
ya gives you a look at how the moon orbits around us too and a perspective of how fast we are going. also gives the moon phases for the year! enjoy 😁
Collins
yes you are absolutely correct, it just like something like the milk of heaven
Subhasish
the far side of the moon is not the dark side of the moon.
Shawn
what phases of the moon occurs when spring tide?
Florence Reply
the moon has a 28 day cycle. you can download a moon calander or follow the pattern and make your own calendar. 1st full moon of the year 21/22nd Jan, its also a blood moon and a wolf moon. if this info helps at all. 😊
Collins
***svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4442
Collins
How to determine the velocity of light?
PARTHIB Reply
using this formula c=1/√absolute permeability×absolute permittivity of free space i.e. c=1/√8.854×10^-12×4π×10^-7~3×10^8ms^-1
Vidyashankar
what is mean by Big Bang
block Reply
What it means by Big Bang is how the world was made and came in to exist
Glory
The Big Bang Is The Best Explanation For What We See Around Us, And For The Origin Of The Universe, All Our Evidence Points To The Big Bang Theory..... And Was Proposed By A Belgian Priest.....
Adam
if the big bang theory is really true than i would like to know what exploded and where did it came from and where did the energy came from and where come from for the matter to expand into amd where did the organization come from and where did the information come from.........
Gospel
Some say that on the otherside of the singularity was a black hole. They say that at the other end of all black holes is another universe. Hence the multiverse. It's all theoretical at this point but less than a 100 years ago people believed that there was only 1 galaxy in the universe. So why
Rafael
should there be only 1 universe?
Rafael
universe.
Rafael
is astronomy a hard subject to learn because i want to be an astronomer
FNAF Reply
No it not it just takes time and effort to learn
Glory
if your already interested/observing, your already an astronomer ! The more you look and read the more you'll learn.
Collins
I want to become a scientist but my knowledge is very low. How I can improve my knowledge?
Wwe
any form of science courses, there's free crash course channel on you tube. I've learned alot from this channel. covers most topics, science: biology chemistry physics, astronomy, ranges to anatomy, history and many many more. it's a never ending subject!
Collins
suggest a channel as a example
Wwe
CrashCourse is the name of the channel and there is a picture of an apple. look through their play lists. They will have other related channels they follow also.
Collins
thank you so much
Wwe
your very welcome
Collins
Why are they so far away that their light takes hundreds of millions of years to reach us on earth?
LadyCatTM Reply
what is comets , astroids ,
Sumit Reply
comets are broken pieces of dust frozen debris Asteroids are big soiled pieces of Ice that burst into flames when it in to earth's atmosphere
Glory
hi, I am yamini, I am in class 8 but very much interested in astronomy and go to NASA, what are the subjects in which I can master and lead to NASA.
yamini Reply
Hello Yamini, Im Ken and I'm avery intrested in joining the NASA too. Is nice to meet you.
Ken
very*
Ken
nice to meet u ken
yamini
What I know about the subjects is that you have to be a master on science and math, also if you know about aviation is better too
Ken
I read that the Russian language is very important, is not a requirement but it's like an extra point!
Ken
yeah like physics, chemistry and maths, they are my most favorite.
yamini
than you can go free of cost
Arush
Yes, That's right!
Ken
how
yamini
Oh! Free of cost?
Ken
hello yamini nice to meet you
Burak
wow from NASA ur so lucky
FNAF
hello yamini nice to meet you
block
what is time
Abdul Reply
Time is relative
mrunal
pls elaborate
sakshi
the clear defination.I know that.
Abdul
In planet mars there the life exits or not and is there water there
Eshwarsa Reply
see till now nothing can be found as u know that the curiosity rover has struck in mars
Maya
It has been proven that there are water molecules on Mars but not enough that most lifeforms could thrive upon.
Ariana
There are huge amounts of water in the ice caps and under the surface. The surface and chemistry indicate that Mars had cosiderable amounts of water on its surface in the past.
Julius
what is your opinion about the theory of Vedas about modern physics..
Manish Reply
i think in some ways vedas are also correct but not everytime
Maya
I agree
sakshi
hmm even I agree
Samuel
Is there any patened theory about time relativitg in growth and development?
donot Reply
some astronomer's says that there is no alien exist but why search for extra terrestrial intelligence center is established
Eshwarsa Reply
No One Knows That For Absolute Fact, The Universe Is Too Huge To Have Any Type Of Idea About What Exist In The Far Reaches Of Our Universe.....
Adam
Check Out The Drake Equation.....
Adam
their should be aliens as like ours there would be another planet
Maya
which could have existed life on it
Maya
adam i want to ask a question
Maya
can kepler 1st law be applied on all the planets of the universe
Maya
hello, anyone home?
Denise
guys listen we cannot ever find aliens because our technology is not that great.we don't know whether they exist or no because our universe is very large . Just for an example;even if we spot out aliens we cannot reach there because lot of time must have been passed and before us reaching there
Samuel
what if their species or existence might get vanished our have been extinct!! getting my point
Samuel
sjskskfhjkkktewqqw and try?
Lanika Reply
what is this ?
Samuel
hi I am Samuel from India mumbai
Samuel
nice to meet you
Samuel
thats my question, what is this?
penzias and wilson's a discovery of the cosmic microwave background is a nice example of scientific serendipity-something that is found by chance but turns out to have a positive outcome
Jacqueline Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Astronomy. OpenStax CNX. Apr 12, 2017 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11992/1.13
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