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Astronomers and physicists have worked hard to learn the lines that go with each element by studying the way atoms absorb and emit light in laboratories here on Earth. Then they can use this knowledge to identify the elements in celestial bodies. In this way, we now know the chemical makeup of not just any star, but even galaxies of stars so distant that their light started on its way to us long before Earth had even formed.

Energy levels and excitation

Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom was a great step forward in our understanding of the atom. However, we know today that atoms cannot be represented by quite so simple a picture. For example, the concept of sharply defined electron orbits is not really correct; however, at the level of this introductory course, the notion that only certain discrete energies are allowable for an atom is very useful. The energy levels we have been discussing can be thought of as representing certain average distances of the electron’s possible orbits from the atomic nucleus.

Ordinarily, an atom is in the state of lowest possible energy, its ground state    . In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the ground state corresponds to the electron being in the innermost orbit. An atom can absorb energy, which raises it to a higher energy level (corresponding, in the simple Bohr picture, to an electron’s movement to a larger orbit)—this is referred to as excitation    . The atom is then said to be in an excited state . Generally, an atom remains excited for only a very brief time. After a short interval, typically a hundred-millionth of a second or so, it drops back spontaneously to its ground state, with the simultaneous emission of light. The atom may return to its lowest state in one jump, or it may make the transition in steps of two or more jumps, stopping at intermediate levels on the way down. With each jump, it emits a photon of the wavelength that corresponds to the energy difference between the levels at the beginning and end of that jump.

An energy-level diagram for a hydrogen atom and several possible atomic transitions are shown in [link] . When we measure the energies involved as the atom jumps between levels, we find that the transitions to or from the ground state, called the Lyman series of lines, result in the emission or absorption of ultraviolet photons. But the transitions to or from the first excited state (labeled n = 2 in part (a) of [link] ), called the Balmer series, produce emission or absorption in visible light. In fact, it was to explain this Balmer series that Bohr first suggested his model of the atom.

Energy-level diagrams for hydrogen.

Energy-Level Diagram for Hydrogen and the Bohr Model for Hydrogen. The right hand side (a) of the figure shows the Bohr model with the Lyman, Balmer, and Paschen series illustrated. A small circle representing the nucleus is enclosed by a larger circle for orbit n=1, then another larger circle for n=2 and so on up to n=5. At the top of this diagram are 4 arrows starting at n=2, with one arrow going up to n=3, one to n=4 and one to n=5. As these arrows are moving away from the nucleus, they represent absorption of energy by the atom to move an electron up to each level. Next is the Lyman series, with arrows from each upper orbital pointing down to n=1. As these arrows are pointing toward the nucleus, energy is released from the atom as electrons “fall” from upper levels down to n=1. Finally, there is the Paschen series, with arrows from the upper levels all pointing down to n=3. Again, as these arrows point toward the nucleus, light is emitted as the electron moves closer to the nucleus. The left hand side (b) of the figure shows the movement of electrons from higher to lower energy levels, represented with arrows pointing downward. From left to right, Lyman series has the longest arrows, then Balmer series with arrows about half as long, then Paschen series with arrows about a fourth as long, then Bracket series with arrows about an eighth as long.
(a) Here we follow the emission or absorption of photons by a hydrogen atom according to the Bohr model. Several different series of spectral lines are shown, corresponding to transitions of electrons from or to certain allowed orbits. Each series of lines that terminates on a specific inner orbit is named for the physicist who studied it. At the top, for example, you see the Balmer series, and arrows show electrons jumping from the second orbit ( n = 2) to the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth orbits. Each time a “poor” electron from a lower level wants to rise to a higher position in life, it must absorb energy to do so. It can absorb the energy it needs from passing waves (or photons) of light. The next set of arrows (Lyman series) show electrons falling down to the first orbit from different (higher) levels. Each time a “rich” electron goes downward toward the nucleus, it can afford to give off (emit) some energy it no longer needs. (b) At higher and higher energy levels, the levels become more and more crowded together, approaching a limit. The region above the top line represents energies at which the atom is ionized (the electron is no longer attached to the atom). Each series of arrows represents electrons falling from higher levels to lower ones, releasing photons or waves of energy in the process.

Questions & Answers

what is the model about the earth being the center of the universe called?
Lordgy Reply
geocentric model
SCIENCE
I hope you got your answer.
SCIENCE
heliocentric universe
Jason
you are wrong Jason skerbinc
SCIENCE
in heliocentric model sun is at the center of the universe
Tanmay
what is black hole and stellar black hole
azeb Reply
does Millikan consider electron axial spin in his discovery of electrons mass using q/m ratio ? If No how it is possible that he found rest mass of electron (9×10^31 Kg) ?
Anurag Reply
how did light from up
Sourav Reply
Before there stars , there was matter and radiation . Before there were neutral atoms ,there was an ionized plasma ,and when that plasma froms neutral atoms , those allow the Universe to deliver the earliest light we see today .......
Apsara
how to know the distance of a star
Sourav Reply
What is time
Sourav
Technical Infinite Measurement of Evolution
Doc
not by the book but the simplicity of word play ....
Doc
to calculate the distance of a star we use parallax method (as far as my school has taught me).
Tanmay
in this method we see the star from one point and then after traveling some distance perpendicular to the distance of star we see it again. With this we can make a triangle and then it's median will give our distance
Tanmay
And time is just a way of defining when an event happened
Tanmay
oh and we will know the distance of all the 3 sides of triangle formed above if we multiply the time taken by light with speed of light and the third side will be known to us as it is dependent on our will
Tanmay
what are wormholes?
facty Reply
Holes made by worms
Neil
What is the difference between black hole and white hole ?
Apsara
black hole is the place where the massive body makes a large disturbance in space time fabric causing large gravity even light can't escape from it and all the bodies enter into on reaching a specific distance.
SCIENCE
A white hole is a hypothetical region of spacetime and singularity which cannot be entered from the outside, although energy-matter and light can escape from it. In this sense, it is the reverse of a black hole, which can be entered only from the outside and from which energy-matter and light can
SCIENCE
White holes appear in the theory of eternal black holes
SCIENCE
worm holes join 2 distant region of spacetime through which you can travel, covering large distance in short time
Tanmay
for example if you need to travel from A to B on a plane of paper then you can travel in a straight line joining those points but a worm hole will join those points using 3rd dimention which will make you travel that distance in short time
Tanmay
Hi,Do you known Kyaw Nyein Chan Hein!
zin Reply
No
Astrophysicist
Hello : I'm Kyaw Nyein Chan
zin
Hi I'm Kyaw Nyein Chan
zin Reply
Hello : good moring, I'm Kyaw Nyein Chan
zin Reply
hello good morning
Astrophysicist
good morning bro
Tanmay
how do you do?
Astrophysicist
I am fine what about you?
Tanmay
same as you
Astrophysicist
cool
Tanmay
How the Big Bang is made .
Apsara Reply
Kyaw Nyein Chan
zin
What is heliocentric
Apsara Reply
helio is from the greek god helios or ilios and means sun. Centric is from central. So heliocentric means with the sun in the middle
Robin
Usually in the context of astronomy its about the moment the world goes from the idea of 'earth in the middle of the solar system' to the idea that the sun is in the center of the solar system
Robin
so from a geocentric (geo meaning earth) to a heliocentric idea
Robin
yes correct this theory states that sun is in the middle of the solar system rather than earth
Tanmay
oh you have already said this
Tanmay
Hello: good afternoon
zin
hello
Tanmay
Thankyou to all to solve my doubt . I don't know more about the solar system beacause i am a small little girl my old is 9 and i love science but i am trying to learn more about science .
Apsara
that's great you should definitely check science in a nutshell YouTube channel it will provide you with good information
Tanmay
that's great you should definitely check science in a nutshell YouTube channel it will provide you with good information
Tanmay
that's great you should definitely check science in a nutshell YouTube channel it will provide you with good information
Tanmay
here is the link ***youtube.com/c/inanutshell
Tanmay
You not alone Apsara I'm 14 but know little about the universe
Swazi
what is solar system
Himanshi
what do you mean by astronomy
Himanshi
astronomy is a study of planetary science.
Enceladus
Astronomy is a branch of Physics that deals with the study of celestial bodies.
Satyam
An astronomy is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific questions or field outside the scope of Earth 🌍🌎🌏 . They observe astronomical objects such as star's , planets , moon , comets and galaxies - in either observational (by analyzing the data)
Apsara
what is the difference between astronomy and cosmology
Astrophysicist
The collection of eight planets and their moon's in orbit around the Sun , together with smaller bodies in the form of asteroids , meteoroids and comets . The planet of the solar system are ( in order of distance from the sun ) Mercury , Venues , Earth ,Mass , Jupiter , Sartune ,Uranus , Neptune .
Apsara
In Astronomy, we study about celestial objects but in cosmology we study the origin and the formation of universe.
Satyam
how much temperature were can find on neptune
Ayyan Reply
the temperature is between -200 to -218 degree Celsius
Tanmay
how can I apply online astronomy course ? if you have link send it.
Dawit Reply
what is astronomy
Khanyisa
Does any body know about Quantum Battery ?
Yabtsega Reply
yea I tell you briefly callme
Eyiba
How to get into the field of astronomy after completing B.tech in department of ECE?
Lakshmi Reply
Well my option is to do your job while getting a distant education from a reptued university for B.Sc and try for M.Sc in IIA and remaining astrophysics universities in india
Mahesh
Do I require GATE score for that?
Lakshmi
Yeah I meañ get a better score in gate.I think the university considers it and would help you to direct enroll into a masters progarmme
Mahesh
But the score should be good.
Mahesh
okay. I will do my best.
Lakshmi
Thank you
Lakshmi
hi guys I am from Ethiopia.I don't know detailedly about astronomy and I want to be astronaut .can you help me guys?
Dawit
I know that astronauts have to be physically fit
Tanmay
I don't know anything else though
Tanmay
If you want to be a astronaut you should complete medicine.
Mahesh
I had done by my b.tech ece long back and then I started doing job...but I still want to switch my field to astronomy, I m confused how shall I pursue it..
Shina
what should we pursue after 12th std B.Sc program and further or through engineering?
Ganesh
Maybe you should ask this question in quora.Professors will tell you answer to the question.
Mahesh
ok
Ganesh
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Astronomy. OpenStax CNX. Apr 12, 2017 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11992/1.13
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