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Reddy, F. “How the Universe Will End.” Astronomy (September 2014): 38. Brief discussion of local and general future scenarios.

Riess, A. and Turner, M. “The Expanding Universe: From Slowdown to Speedup.” Scientific American (September 2008): 62.

Turner, M. “The Origin of the Universe.” Scientific American (September 2009): 36. An introduction to modern cosmology.

Websites

Cosmology Primer: https://preposterousuniverse.com/cosmologyprimer/. Caltech Astrophysicist Sean Carroll offers a non-technical site with brief overviews of many key topics in modern cosmology.

Everyday Cosmology: http://cosmology.carnegiescience.edu/. An educational website from the Carnegie Observatories with a timeline of cosmological discovery, background materials, and activities.

How Big Is the Universe?: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/how-big-universe.html. A clear essay by a noted astronomer Brent Tully summarizes some key ideas in cosmology and introduces the notion of the acceleration of the universe.

Universe 101: WMAP Mission Introduction to the Universe: http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/. Concise NASA primer on cosmological ideas from the WMAP mission team.

Cosmic Times Project: http://cosmictimes.gsfc.nasa.gov/. James Lochner and Barbara Mattson have compiled a rich resource of twentieth-century cosmology history in the form of news reports on key events, from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center.

Videos

The Day We Found the Universe: http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/events/mon_video_archive09.html. Distinguished science writer Marcia Bartusiak discusses Hubble’s work and the discovery of the expansion of the cosmos—one of the Observatory Night lectures at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (53:46).

Images of the Infant Universe: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0AqCwElyUk. Lloyd Knox’s public talk on the latest discoveries about the CMB and what they mean for cosmology (1:16:00).

Runaway Universe: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNYVFrnmcOU. Roger Blandford (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) public lecture on the discovery and meaning of cosmic acceleration and dark energy (1:08:08).

From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to the James Webb Space Telescope and the Discovery of Alien Life: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a010300/a010370/index.html. John Mather, NASA Goddard (1:01:02). His Nobel Prize talk from Dec. 8, 2006 can be found at http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=74&view=1.

Dark Energy and the Fate of the Universe: https://webcast.stsci.edu/webcast/detail.xhtml?talkid=1961&parent=1. Adam Reiss (STScI), at the Space Telescope Science Institute (1:00:00).

Collaborative group activities

  1. This chapter deals with some pretty big questions and ideas. Some belief systems teach us that there are questions to which “we were not meant to know” the answers. Other people feel that if our minds and instruments are capable of exploring a question, then it becomes part of our birthright as thinking human beings. Have your group discuss your personal reactions to discussing questions like the beginning of time and space, and the ultimate fate of the universe. Does it make you nervous to hear about scientists discussing these issues? Or is it exciting to know that we can now gather scientific evidence about the origin and fate of the cosmos? (In discussing this, you may find that members of your group strongly disagree; try to be respectful of others’ points of view.)
  2. A popular model of the universe in the 1950s and 1960s was the so-called steady-state cosmology. In this model, the universe was not only the same everywhere and in all directions (homogeneous and isotropic), but also the same at all times . We know the universe is expanding and the galaxies are thinning out, and so this model hypothesized that new matter was continually coming into existence to fill in the space between galaxies as they moved farther apart. If so, the infinite universe did not have to have a sudden beginning, but could simply exist forever in a steady state. Have your group discuss your reaction to this model. Do you find it more appealing philosophically than the Big Bang model? Can you cite some evidence that indicates that the universe was not the same billions of years ago as it is now—that it is not in a steady state?
  3. One of the lucky accidents that characterizes our universe is the fact that the time scale for the development of intelligent life on Earth and the lifetime of the Sun are comparable. Have your group discuss what would happen if the two time scales were very different. Suppose, for example, that the time for intelligent life to evolve was 10 times greater than the main-sequence lifetime of the Sun. Would our civilization have ever developed? Now suppose the time for intelligent life to evolve is ten times shorter than the main-sequence lifetime of the Sun. Would we be around? (This latter discussion requires considerable thought, including such ideas as what the early stages in the Sun’s life were like and how much the early Earth was bombarded by asteroids and comets.)
  4. The grand ideas discussed in this chapter have a powerful effect on the human imagination, not just for scientists, but also for artists, composers, dramatists, and writers. Here we list just a few of these responses to cosmology. Each member of your group can select one of these, learn more about it, and then report back, either to the group or to the whole class.
    • The California poet Robinson Jeffers was the brother of an astronomer who worked at the Lick Observatory. His poem “Margrave” is a meditation on cosmology and on the kidnap and murder of a child: http://www.poemhunter.com/best-poems/robinson-jeffers/margrave/.
    • In the science fiction story “The Gravity Mine” by Stephen Baxter, the energy of evaporating supermassive black holes is the last hope of living beings in the far future in an ever-expanding universe. The story has poetic description of the ultimate fate of matter and life and is available online at: http://www.infinityplus.co.uk/stories/gravitymine.htm.
    • The musical piece YLEM by Karlheinz Stockhausen takes its title from the ancient Greek term for primeval material revived by George Gamow. It tries to portray the oscillating universe in musical terms. Players actually expand through the concert hall, just as the universe does, and then return and expand again. See: http://www.karlheinzstockhausen.org/ylem_english.htm.
    • The musical piece Supernova Sonata http://www.astro.uvic.ca/~alexhp/new/supernova_sonata.html by Alex Parker and Melissa Graham is based on the characteristics of 241 type Ia supernova explosions, the ones that have helped astronomers discover the acceleration of the expanding universe.
    • Gregory Benford’s short story “The Final Now” envisions the end of an accelerating open universe, and blends religious and scientific imagery in a very poetic way. Available free online at: http://www.tor.com/stories/2010/03/the-final-now.
  5. When Einstein learned about Hubble’s work showing that the universe of galaxies is expanding, he called his introduction of the cosmological constant into his general theory of relativity his “biggest blunder.” Can your group think of other “big blunders” from the history of astronomy, where the thinking of astronomers was too conservative and the universe turned out to be more complicated or required more “outside-the-box” thinking?

Questions & Answers

something's like that maybe, the ways to know them
Dennis Reply
oh ok you can actually reply to your own comment by tapping it once
Tanmay
you should do this
Tanmay
what are laws of the universe
Dennis Reply
The law of attraction
Lambent
Are you talking about fundamental forces Dennis?
Tanmay
you can go to google and type 4 fundamental forces of the universe
Tanmay
let me give you gist of it there are 4 fundamental forces namely gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear and weak nuclear
Tanmay
the came into being just after the bid bang
Tanmay
I mean big bang
Tanmay
you should watch this video for better understanding ***youtu.be/X9otDixAtFw
Tanmay
wow some more than information
Rajeshwari Reply
since space gets bigger dose it affect distance between the sun and earth
Swazi Reply
yes the distance between earth and sun increase at a rate of 15 cm per year
Tanmay
ohh really I didn't knew that , you learn something new everyday
NARUTO
true
Tanmay
thanks so much my friend
Youssef
Dear tanmay and other friends I want to ask that if both sun and earth are moving away from their center than why their inter relative distance is increasing rather squeezing taking in consideration of masses I am student so I apologize further and wanna guidance if possible
haseeb
The Earth does not get close to or “touch” the Sun because it is in orbit around the Sun. A circular orbit means that the orbiting body always stays the same distance from the thing it orbits. The Earth's orbit is nearly circular and keeps us about 93 million miles from it.
Konica
Konica nor the orbit can prevent our earth from getting closer (if it was coming closer) and nor is the orbit of earth nearly circular
Tanmay
And Haseeb can you make your question a little simple or something I didn't get it. What do you mean by moving away from their center?
Tanmay
And then comes your increasing rather than squeezing taking mass into consideration I never heard of that and I didn't understand that
Tanmay
Which formula are you using for that squeezing part?
Tanmay
What's difference between Astronomy and Astrophysics?
Gurjinder Reply
Actually astrophysics is one of the many branches of astronomy. It usually deals with the mathematical calculations of predicting the motions of heavenly bodies and also it studies the evolution of our universe by using physics.
Debabrata
So is there any observational astrophysics?
Gurjinder
Yes there are 2 types of astrophysicsist one is theoretical and other one is observational. I don't know about astrophysics though
Tanmay
Thanks
Gurjinder
welcome
Tanmay
😊
Gurjinder
Is there a way for us to find out that we are in a simulation or not?
Tanmay Reply
I think mathematics is a key
Arghyabindu
If we are in a simulation then I don't think that the super intelligent species which is controlling this simulation will give us any hint about how to know it.
Debabrata
There has to be some kind of bugs even a carefully designed app has some bugs in our world
Tanmay
Yeah.... There might be some loophole in their programme code.... And who knows.... We could find the bugs in a super massive black hole
Debabrata
But here we are talking about a very very very massive simulation by a very advanced species...... So they might ve already planned on how to deal with all the bugs and glitches
Debabrata
There's a really interesting theory that states even if we are in a simulation, it would be coded in such a way that as soon as one of us (a sentient being inside the simulation) had the slightest hint/evidence that we were in a simulation, the simulation would be edited to remove that information
ben
(I keep commenting on posts and they just dont post sometimes, does anyone else have this problem or should I just delete the app?)
ben
same happened to me but I see yours))
NARUTO
(ah well it must just be a little problem with the app, cheers for letting me know 🙌)
ben
(Well never happened to me though it takes some time to post large messages)
Tanmay
I saw a comment where he told that the universe is a game and finding it's nature is the level as soon as we find its nature the universe collapse and make another universe with more complex nature and this continues
Tanmay
(ahh that may be what it is actually because it is only the longer messages, thanks for letting us know)
ben
That was really a unique way of seeing the universe
Tanmay
Impractical way are there such as leaving your mortal body and entering to the astral body....cons of this idea is you can't tell us what you have saw or feel in that endemic confrontation
Arghyabindu
what a friend told me now
Arghyabindu
We are just a component of the universe trying to understand the other components of the universe...... So I guess that sometimes it makes the matter more and more complicated
Debabrata
what a friend told me now
Arghyabindu
Wait if we are in a simulation then does that means our future is predicted and we can't change it like some kind of rpg game
Tanmay
Yes IF we are in a simulation then definitely the future is already programmed..... But it may be in early access stage..... And the future might not be written at the moment.
Debabrata
so we can do time travel upto the point where our future is written
Tanmay
Maybe or may not be..... Depending on the script or program written in the simulation..... The intelligent species should be controlling every step we take and every thought that come into our mind.
Debabrata
Have you seen sword art online anime?
Tanmay
well never mind it's just repeated stuff
Tanmay
Nah.... I don't watch anime
Debabrata
ok
Tanmay
hii guyz
Lambent
Hey
Debabrata
BLM ✊🏾✊🏾✊🏾
Laila
?
Kilten
thanks
Sahil
If we can simulate consciousness somehow, then there is a bright chance that we 'might' be living in a simulation all along.
Ganesh
which is the biggest star in the universe? if anyone know answer,please reply.
Ciffee Reply
which is the biggest star. ?
Ciffee
u y scuti
Sunidhi
sun
Konica
for our galaxy
Konica
Konica UY Scuti is the biggest Star ever observed and it's located in our galaxy.
Gurjinder
what are the branches of astronomy?
SCIENCE Reply
So there are literary many branches of astronomy like- Radio astronomy, Ultraviolet astronomy, X ray astronomy, etc. (just imagine the electromagnetic spectrum) There's also Astrophysics (My favorite), astro chemistry, astrobiology, astro geology, planetary science, astrometry
Debabrata
factors that contribute to the development of ancient astronomy to modern astronomy
Andrea Reply
When will be we found them?I am so waiting.
Everything Changes when Galileo Galilee observed Sky with a telescope. There's no doubt that ancient astronomers knows a lot of things about sky , but there observation was with naked eye. i wanna share some of the glimpse of Indian ancient astronomy:
Gurjinder
1.They know the difference between the Star and Planets at that time. 2. They know which star is multiple star system and their rotation with respect to each other. 3. They know the value of speed of light. And their are lots of things which they knows even without telescope.
Gurjinder
why is a supernova
pooja Reply
well there are different types of supernovas. there is a type 1a supernova and that happens when a white dwarf reaches the mass of 1.4 of the sun. A type 2 supernova is when a high mass star starts to fuse iron in the core and the star collapse then expands to create that supernova
PopularHellboy
what is time.!
Samyak Reply
92 billion light years
The
4th Dimension
The
time is illusion
Ciffee
Time is a way of describing an event happened in our 3D world
Tanmay
Why are the largest visible-light telescopes in the world made with mirrors rather than lenses?
Nibha Reply
What is a charge-coupled device (CCD), and how is it used in astronomy?
Nibha
Why is it difficult to observe at infrared wavelengths? What do astronomers do to address this difficulty?
Nibha
not sure what a CCD.
PopularHellboy
(also, lenses have are more problematic over larger distances due to the way different wavelengths of light act within glass. Red and blue light wavelength differs by about 300nm, and so the refraction will affect them differently, whereas when reflecting on a mirror, this is not a problem)
ben
hi
Zalka
i'm from Indonesian
Zalka
(I tried posting this before but this app doesn't seem to work properly) A CCD essentially works as a camera. It's made from an array of capacitors (which make up the 'pixels'). When an incident photon hits the 'pixel', the charge generated is measured and can be translated into an image we can view
ben
the reason mirrors are more common than lenses (on large scale telescopes) is because it is a lot easier and cheaper to make a parabolic mirror than it is to make a perfect glass lens
ben
Because Refracting Telescope cause Cromatic abberetion.
Tushar
Just reading along. I can't see the end of the page so commenting to move it up.
Eva
same. but mirrors are also made with great efficiency and calculation for trapping the light
Konica
How might Venus’ atmosphere have evolved to its present state through a runaway greenhouse effect?
Nibha Reply
what is synchrotron radiation
Nibha
I am 15 and I got interested in astronomy. Can anyone tell me the basics that I must know?
Vikky Reply
you can start by studying the theories of astronomy. there is light and the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. from there you learn about waves and how we as astronomers received information from space. then you can learn about the nebula hypothesis and also about our solar system
PopularHellboy
but if you learn about the foundation of light and the dually of nature with it and the Doppler effect, it will apply to most stuff in astronomy
PopularHellboy
heyy @populadHellboy can you tell me from where can I find this Light and The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation ? I mean is there any course ?
Sagar
I mean I learn astronomy in college with astronomy 101 and 102 I'm sure if you search online for YouTube videos or blogs they can help you with that. try crash course on YouTube for an introduction
PopularHellboy
Currently preparing for olympiad, is there any online resources for Astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology? If there's any past question papers i'll be delighted. I'm currently using Principle and Practice and Introduction To Modern Astrophysics..
Aditya
what is time
Sourav
how big is a parsec
David Reply
I believe it's about 3.086 x 10^16 meters. You can try converting 1 radian to 1 arc secs, multiply with 1 AU, convert it to meter.
Aditya
Its 31 trillion km
Asim
very big
Ciffee

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