# 28.3 The distribution of galaxies in space  (Page 7/13)

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## Galaxy distribution

To determine the distribution of galaxies in three-dimensional space, astronomers have to measure their positions and their redshifts. The larger the volume of space surveyed, the more likely the measurement is a fair sample of the universe as a whole. However, the work involved increases very rapidly as you increase the volume covered by the survey.

Let’s do a quick calculation to see why this is so.

Suppose that you have completed a survey of all the galaxies within 30 million light-years and you now want to survey to 60 million light-years. What volume of space is covered by your second survey? How much larger is this volume than the volume of your first survey? Remember that the volume of a sphere, V , is given by the formula V = 4/3π R 3 , where R is the radius of the sphere.

## Solution

Since the volume of a sphere depends on R 3 and the second survey reaches twice as far in distance, it will cover a volume that is 2 3 = 8 times larger. The total volume covered by the second survey will be (4/3)π × (60 million light-years) 3 = 9 × 10 23 light-years 3 .

Suppose you now want to expand your survey to 90 million light-years. What volume of space is covered, and how much larger is it than the volume of the second survey?

The total volume covered is (4/3)π × (90 million light-years) 3 = 3.05 × 10 24 light-years 3 . The survey reaches 3 times as far in distance, so it will cover a volume that is 3 3 = 27 times larger.

Even larger, more sensitive telescopes and surveys are currently being designed and built to peer farther and farther out in space and back in time. The new 50-meter Large Millimeter Telescope in Mexico and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array in Chile can detect far-infrared and millimeter-wave radiation from massive starbursting galaxies at redshifts and thus distances more than 90% of the way back to the Big Bang. These cannot be observed with visible light because their star formation regions are wrapped in clouds of thick dust. And in 2018, the 6.5-meter-diameter James Webb Space Telescope is scheduled to launch. It will be the first new major visible light and near-infrared telescope in space since Hubble was launched more than 25 years earlier. One of the major goals of this telescope is to observe directly the light of the first galaxies and even the first stars to shine, less than half a billion years after the Big Bang.

At this point, if you have been thinking about our discussions of the expanding universe in Galaxies , you may be wondering what exactly in [link] is expanding. We know that the galaxies and clusters of galaxies are held together by their gravity and do not expand as the universe does. However, the voids do grow larger and the filaments move farther apart as space stretches (see The Big Bang ).

## Astronomy and technology: the sloan digital sky survey

In Edwin Hubble’s day, spectra of galaxies had to be taken one at a time. The faint light of a distant galaxy gathered by a large telescope was put through a slit, and then a spectrometer (also called a spectrograph) was used to separate the colors and record the spectrum. This was a laborious process, ill suited to the demands of making large-scale maps that require the redshifts of many thousands of galaxies.

But new technology has come to the rescue of astronomers who seek three-dimensional maps of the universe of galaxies. One ambitious survey of the sky was produced using a special telescope, camera, and spectrograph atop the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico. Called the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), after the foundation that provided a large part of the funding, the program used a 2.5-meter telescope (about the same aperture as the Hubble) as a wide-angle astronomical camera. During a mapping program lasting more than ten years, astronomers used the SDSS’s 30 charge-coupled devices (CCDs)—sensitive electronic light detectors similar to those used in many digital cameras and cell phones—to take images of over 500 million objects and spectra of over 3 million, covering more than one-quarter of the celestial sphere. Like many large projects in modern science, the Sloan Survey involved scientists and engineers from many different institutions, ranging from universities to national laboratories.

Every clear night for more than a decade, astronomers used the instrument to make images recording the position and brightness of celestial objects in long strips of the sky. The information in each strip was digitally recorded and preserved for future generations. When the seeing (recall this term from Astronomical Instruments ) was only adequate, the telescope was used for taking spectra of galaxies and quasars—but it did so for up to 640 objects at a time .

The key to the success of the project was a series of optical fibers , thin tubes of flexible glass that can transmit light from a source to the CCD that then records the spectrum. After taking images of a part of the sky and identifying which objects are galaxies, project scientists drilled an aluminum plate with holes for attaching fibers at the location of each galaxy. The telescope was then pointed at the right section of the sky, and the fibers led the light of each galaxy to the spectrometer for individual recording ( [link] ).

About an hour was sufficient for each set of spectra, and the pre-drilled aluminum plates could be switched quickly. Thus, it was possible to take as many as 5000 spectra in one night (provided the weather was good enough).

The galaxy survey led to a more comprehensive map of the sky than has ever before been possible, allowing astronomers to test their ideas about large-scale structure and the evolution of galaxies against an impressive array of real data.

The information recorded by the Sloan Survey staggers the imagination. The data came in at 8 megabytes per second (this means 8 million individual numbers or characters every second). Over the course of the project, scientists recorded over 15 terabytes, or 15 thousand billion bytes, which they estimate is comparable to the information contained in the Library of Congress. Organizing and sorting this volume of data and extracting the useful scientific results it contains is a formidable challenge, even in our information age. Like many other fields, astronomy has now entered an era of “Big Data,” requiring supercomputers and advanced computer algorithms to sift through all those terabytes of data efficiently.

One very successful solution to the challenge of dealing with such large datasets is to turn to “citizen science,” or crowd-sourcing, an approach the SDSS helped pioneer. The human eye is very good at recognizing subtle differences among shapes, such as between two different spiral galaxies, while computers often fail at such tasks. When Sloan project astronomers wanted to catalog the shapes of some of the millions of galaxies in their new images, they launched the “Galaxy Zoo” project: volunteers around the world were given a short training course online, then were provided with a few dozen galaxy images to classify by eye. The project was wildly successful, resulting in over 40 million galaxy classifications by more than 100,000 volunteers and the discovery of whole new types of galaxies.

## Key concepts and summary

Counts of galaxies in various directions establish that the universe on the large scale is homogeneous and isotropic (the same everywhere and the same in all directions, apart from evolutionary changes with time). The sameness of the universe everywhere is referred to as the cosmological principle. Galaxies are grouped together in clusters. The Milky Way Galaxy is a member of the Local Group, which contains at least 54 member galaxies. Rich clusters (such as Virgo and Coma) contain thousands or tens of thousands of galaxies. Galaxy clusters often group together with other clusters to form large-scale structures called superclusters, which can extend over distances of several hundred million light-years. Clusters and superclusters are found in filamentary structures that are huge but fill only a small fraction of space. Most of space consists of large voids between superclusters, with nearly all galaxies confined to less than 10% of the total volume.

is their life on mars
yes, as of now..
Rosselle
what is the origin of the universe
Big Bang
Michele
what is it first cause
Ummisalmah
is its existence necessary
Ummisalmah
from where the first energy came during big bang?
Bysali
the steady state theory may be true too
Shaunak
Did there is any life probability on titan (largest moon of saturn)
Yes, there could be a possibility of existance of life because Titan is full icy mountains which are one form of water and. could assist in microbial growth
Astronomy
although life is not yet detected on it, it is theorized that when the sun starts its red giant phase, the temperatures on titan,enceladus,etc will become suitable for life and they may develop an atmosphere too
Shaunak
What is 5 dimension
hi
Danbirnianz
yo!!!
Bennett
5 dimension is truth
Bennett
form - order - structure - society - TRUTH
Bennett
TPonder
why not string theory called a theory of everything
Perhaps because string theory is useless when discussing "things" like music theory, or morality and justice. Therefore cannot be a theory of "everything."
Bennett
why the energy cost
what is sagittarius
what is gimine
Black hole of Milky way galaxy
deepanshu
thanks a lot for your sympath and information
thanks a lot for your sympath and information Deepanshu
Hello: My friends, How do you do?
zin
(Sagittarius A) is a name of black hole ,present center of Milky Way
Harsh
this question is for atheists what created humans , how did they evolve
not entirely sure what this question has to do with Atheism but, firstly, there is no "who", life evolved in multiple paths, humans are simply one of those paths. The process of how life evolves is a very complicated but very well researched field of biology, so it would be worth doing research...
ben
...into that field, evolution isnt disputed. However, the direct path from the common ancestor (that we share with chimps) has not yet been completed. But know for sure that humans didn't just magically appear one day, it was over millions of years of evolution
ben
(I must ask though, what has this got to do with Atheism?)
ben
idk i thought believers will say god created us
ilyes
there are many types of believers one say that god created consciousness, one say we just magically appeared out of nowhere, and one say universe was created by God(all based on people I have met so far)
Tanmay
Hey
Asim
Tanmay!
Asim
Hello
Asim
hello Asim
Tanmay
hi my friends asim and tqnmay we hhave lern okay
Eyiba
did u forget me!!
Amit
Could God have created evolution? Nope, no way, too complicated.
Bennett
yes god can do that in theory
Tanmay
@Eyiba hello
Tanmay
@Amit seems like that XD
Tanmay
haha🤣🤣
Amit
This question is for theists, what created God?
Anthony
hi
UFOLIENS
God was begotten, not made. More of a concept than an entity.
Bennett
hello
Stuart
Hi🙂🙂
Harsh
Hi🙂🙂
Harsh
Hi🙂🙂
Harsh
Hi🙂🙂
Harsh
we came by God not real old stinky water
Bryant
Here people don't have a goal to become astronomers ,rather they want to become astrologers,with this mindset,there won't be any progress in this void earth as Feynman says in his book "if I could explain it to the average person (like how astrologers do) I wouldn't have been worth the nobel price".
Akshar
God did not create the universe.. Humans created god, possibly to fill in an unwanted reality no1 wants to believe because life can be a struggle for most.
Collins
astronomy and astrology diverged from the same concept, to deny either one is to deny them both.
Bennett
yes why not you don't need to ask anyone for permission
Tanmay
sure, why not?
ca
-Why there are moons in every planet but there's note in mercure ?
Well with mercury Venus also does not have moon.The reason that Mercury is not having moons is since it is too close to sun and thus if it would have any moon orbiting it ,then the moon will eventually attracted by sun due to it's high gravitational force whereas mercury has the lowest gravity
Anjali
The gravitational force of mercury is lowest in solar system and it won't be able to hold a moon in it's orbit
Anjali
Nice explanation
Asim
Thank you brother
Anjali
Did general theory of relativity leads us to singularity?
Asim
yes the general theory of relativity leads us to singularity
Anjali
But Einstein was not a believer of big bang. And singularity lead us to big bang?
Asim
yes Einstein was really astonished by his mathmatical answers that came fron his equations (this is what almost every one says)
Tanmay
and there are many theories stating how our universe came in which one is big bang
Tanmay
Einstein was against the fact that anything can come from nothing that our big bang says and he also thought that singularity (infinite mass in zero volume) can not be real(also what most people say)
Tanmay
also what most people say means that there is no evidence that he was against all these things
Tanmay
Okay
Asim
Tanmay
Asim
anything else
Tanmay
Do you believe that grand unified theory can be complete in future?
Asim
Do you believe that grand unified theory will be complete in future?
Asim
yes I do believe in it as I also believe big bang
Tanmay
Well i don't believe in big bang like Einstein didn't.
Asim
do you believe in wormholes are real?
Amit
@Asim then what do you think our universe came from or how it started
Tanmay
Well it's a myth.
Asim
@Amit I believe wormholes are real
Tanmay
It came from nothing Tanmay.
Asim
Even I believe in wormholes
Anjali
So Tanmay you must believe in baby universes.?
Asim
I believe that they are many things we can't explain or give prove but they are theories,imaginations and they are the basics for new discoveries
Anjali
So ,it is useless to argue over them
Anjali
But we should try to find new possibilities if we don't believe in old ones
Anjali
you are right @anjali
Amit
what is dark matter?
Amit
can a star turn into planet?
Amit
I have doubt on how Stephen hawking posses ideas of black hole by himself?
why do people believe in God and how are humans made
ilyes
No amit star can't turn into planet.
Asim
you are wrong asim
Amit
also Asim, please tell me why you think the big bang is a myth?
ben
@Asim what do you mean by it came from nothing what came from nothing
Tanmay
@Asik I don't know what baby universe is if you mean early universe then the question doesn't make sense
Tanmay
@Amit starts can become cold enough for us to live at high altitude but their surface will still be made of plasma
Tanmay
@Amit dark matter is a type of substance that doesn't interact with normal matter and also gives galaxies enough mass to hold its stars rather than to fly out by its rotation
Tanmay
Sorry Asim for wrong spelling of your name
Tanmay
Amit
@Tanmay but a star can turn into a planet, but this transformation only happens for a very particular type of star known as a brown dwarf.
Amit
ben
I will check and then I will tell you if it's true or not thanks for the question
Tanmay
I will check as it is really wierd but thanks for your question
Tanmay
(oh no I was joking hahaha, Amit just took the definition that you see first on google and pasted)
ben
Tanmay baby universes is when something fell in black hole it's went into another universe called baby universe according to Stephen hawking. Well i don't know weather to believe it or not.
Asim
Amit brown dwarf are not planet or stars they have their own classification these are basically failed star, not massive enough to power hydrogen fission reaction.
Asim
ahh, didn't he use that to explain where "information" goes? because recently a paper was published stating that information may actually be re-emitted by the black hole as 'encoded' hawking radiation
ben
(so it may not be going to another universe, but instead coming back into our own)
ben
Hawking radiation are basically the the radiation emitted by black hole boundaries called event horizon.
Asim
Amit
So re-emitting doesn't make scene.
Asim
every black hole contains a singularity?
Amit
Yep absolutely.
Asim
ohhh, no worries dude, and yeah hawking radiation is a consequence of both quantum mechanics and relativity, really cool. And look it up Asim, it's a really interesting read
ben
but a singularity is a point in space where there is a mass with a infinte density. the problem is that infinities never exist in real world.
Amit
Ben it's really difficult to relate quantum mechanics to relativity.
Asim
Dude if you have done nobel price is waiting for you. (haha)
Asim
consequence of both quantum mechanics and relativity.!!!
Amit
Amit read theory of relativity and black hole singularities in Google. Everything will be cleared.
Asim
🤣🤣🤣
Amit
Amit
hahahahaha, yeah that's true I'm being lazy as hell there haha, I mean more it's something relates the big and small (it's cool to see quantum phenomena having a direct effect on something predicted by relativity)
ben
(if a GUT is found I genuinely doubt I'd be able to comprehend the maths hahaha, maybe a long a way down the road but not yet)
ben
ben you are nominated for nobel as well as oscar for your thoughts..(hahaha)
Amit
what's you thinks about gravitational waves gentlemen?
Amit
hahahaha, and I love what I know so far but honestly dude, I've learnt essentially nothing about gravitational waves at university yet, I'm hoping that's going to be next year
ben
I would love to ask someone what the effects of constructive ans destructive interference of gravitational waves would be. Would total destructive interference lead to black holes?
ben
good luck for your next year... ben
Amit
if such things happen that's gonna be amazing.....
Amit
eyy thank you dude, likewise man, wish you all the best for your endeavours
ben
eyy cheers dude, likewise for you man, wishing all the best for you
ben
thanks buddy..
Amit
💝❤
Amit
(my bad, sometimes my phone wont show the first message as being sent, so I send another just in case)
ben
Gravitational Waves could help us travel faster in the space, if we are to set on an adventure like the one in The Interstellar, lol. Just saying
Awesh
what do u think created the universe
ilyes
m curious
ilyes
I believe in the theory where it states that our universe came from death of another universe and after our universe's death another universe will come from it
Tanmay
@Amit if that's what baby universe is then
Tanmay
my current understanding of universe and black holes, I would have to disbelief it
Tanmay
@Asim @Amit there is a feild in physics where we study about the physics of those objects who have intermediate size and follow some rules of quantum physics and relativity
Tanmay
@Ben what is full form of GUT?
Tanmay
@Ben I have never seen anyone spotting interference with gravitational waves but most of the people think that it will just be like interference in waves like light or sound. Do that means it's amplitude will change and will not create and black holes or stuff
Tanmay
@Awesh yes many people in youtube(some have good degrees and are astrophysicist) say that warping space is possible using gravitational waves
Tanmay
Do you all believe in multiverse
Anjali
I believe in multiverse
Tanmay
The relation between quantum physics and relativity is like sky and the land (hahaha)
Amit
what about the air between sky(let's assume height of clouds is sky) and land. It basically means that there is a field like that you should google it up
Tanmay
it's the most mysterious field and we almost know nothing about it. there are no laws(like Newton's law of motion) or something like that
Tanmay
The most undifined and fascinating theory is string theory what do u think about it?
Amit
how can I learned quantum mechanics
Harsh
what is the model about the earth being the center of the universe called?
geocentric model
SCIENCE
SCIENCE
heliocentric universe
Jason
you are wrong Jason skerbinc
SCIENCE
in heliocentric model sun is at the center of the universe
Tanmay
what is black hole and stellar black hole
does Millikan consider electron axial spin in his discovery of electrons mass using q/m ratio ? If No how it is possible that he found rest mass of electron (9×10^31 Kg) ?
how did light from up
Before there stars , there was matter and radiation . Before there were neutral atoms ,there was an ionized plasma ,and when that plasma froms neutral atoms , those allow the Universe to deliver the earliest light we see today .......
Apsara
how to know the distance of a star
What is time
Sourav
Technical Infinite Measurement of Evolution
Doc
not by the book but the simplicity of word play ....
Doc
to calculate the distance of a star we use parallax method (as far as my school has taught me).
Tanmay
in this method we see the star from one point and then after traveling some distance perpendicular to the distance of star we see it again. With this we can make a triangle and then it's median will give our distance
Tanmay
And time is just a way of defining when an event happened
Tanmay
oh and we will know the distance of all the 3 sides of triangle formed above if we multiply the time taken by light with speed of light and the third side will be known to us as it is dependent on our will
Tanmay
what is space fabric
Harsh
parallex method
Harsh
what is spacetime velocity?
Amit
Hi i am Gurashish
Gurashish
hello
Samuel
Hi
Gurashish
perhaps we calculate the time that light take from planet Earth to the star in question! the speed of light is 300000 km in a second! we Have to do a calculated! I hope it is right! it is very complicated!
Michele
Parallax method
Awesh