# 24.4 Time in general relativity

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## Learning objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

• Describe how Einsteinian gravity    slows clocks and can decrease a light wave’s frequency of oscillation
• Recognize that the gravitational decrease in a light wave’s frequency is compensated by an increase in the light wave’s wavelength—the so-called gravitational redshift—so that the light continues to travel at constant speed

General relativity theory makes various predictions about the behavior of space and time. One of these predictions, put in everyday terms, is that the stronger the gravity, the slower the pace of time . Such a statement goes very much counter to our intuitive sense of time as a flow that we all share. Time has always seemed the most democratic of concepts: all of us, regardless of wealth or status, appear to move together from the cradle to the grave in the great current of time.

But Einstein argued that it only seems this way to us because all humans so far have lived and died in the gravitational environment of Earth. We have had no chance to test the idea that the pace of time might depend on the strength of gravity, because we have not experienced radically different gravities. Moreover, the differences in the flow of time are extremely small until truly large masses are involved. Nevertheless, Einstein’s prediction has now been tested, both on Earth and in space.

## The tests of time

An ingenious experiment in 1959 used the most accurate atomic clock known to compare time measurements on the ground floor and the top floor of the physics building at Harvard University. For a clock, the experimenters used the frequency (the number of cycles per second) of gamma rays emitted by radioactive cobalt. Einstein’s theory predicts that such a cobalt clock on the ground floor, being a bit closer to Earth’s center of gravity, should run very slightly slower than the same clock on the top floor. This is precisely what the experiments observed. Later, atomic clocks were taken up in high-flying aircraft and even on one of the Gemini space flights. In each case, the clocks farther from Earth ran a bit faster. While in 1959 it didn’t matter much if the clock at the top of the building ran faster than the clock in the basement, today that effect is highly relevant. Every smartphone or device that synchronizes with a GPS must correct for this (as we will see in the next section) since the clocks on satellites will run faster than clocks on Earth.

The effect is more pronounced if the gravity involved is the Sun’s and not Earth’s. If stronger gravity slows the pace of time, then it will take longer for a light or radio wave that passes very near the edge of the Sun to reach Earth than we would expect on the basis of Newton’s law of gravity. (It takes longer because spacetime is curved in the vicinity of the Sun.) The smaller the distance between the ray of light and the edge of the Sun at closest approach, the longer will be the delay in the arrival time.

In November 1976, when the two Viking spacecraft were operating on the surface of Mars, the planet went behind the Sun as seen from Earth ( [link] ). Scientists had preprogrammed Viking to send a radio wave toward Earth that would go extremely close to the outer regions of the Sun. According to general relativity, there would be a delay because the radio wave would be passing through a region where time ran more slowly. The experiment was able to confirm Einstein’s theory to within 0.1%.

That point is known as Singularity
Indian culture talks about black holes very well
Tushar
The word "MAHAKAAL" means black hole
Tushar
I love Quantum mechanics
Tushar
I love particle physics
Tushar
wow do you know about some maths in quantum physics?
Tanmay
Hi! Anybody can tell me that what is the exactly the black hole?
l no
Jee
OK then tell me
sach
A black hole is a space where gravity pulls so much that even light cannot get out.
Pratiksha
This can happen when a star is dying
Pratiksha
ok👍
Pratiksha
Explain more
sach
ok wait
Pratiksha
when a star of mass greater than 20 times the mass of sun dies it forms a stellar mass black hole
Tanmay
it bends space time so much that you need to travel faster than speed of light to get out of it
Tanmay
the innermost stable orbit of a black hole is that orbit where only light speed particles can orbit it
Tanmay
accretion disk of black holes are the matter that it gained from the surrounding orbiting the black holes
Tanmay
black hole forms when the center of very massive star collapsed it upon it self
Pratiksha
relativistic jets come out of black holes when the angle between accretion disk is not 90 degrees(this might be wrong but I know that it has to do something with magnetic field)
Tanmay
@pratiksha you took a lot of time to type this I thought you are Going to type an essay
Tanmay
@Gurjinder you can ask it here
Tanmay
sorry, but the text was not going 😅
Pratiksha
OK thanks
sach
yr most welcome sis
Pratiksha
I am a student class 12
Tanmay
there are 3 types of black holes stellar mass intermediate mass and super massive black holes
Tanmay
yeah!
Pratiksha
super massive black holes are found at the center of most galaxies
Tanmay
My hometown is at Odisha but I study and live in up
Tanmay
I still don't know a lot of stuff especially the maths involved in astrophysics
Tanmay
becoming an astrophysics thanks for your words
Tanmay
oh cool what all subjects are you studying
Tanmay
oh it happens sometimes
Tanmay
Tanmay
are there any chapters only for astrophysics
Tanmay
thank you same to you
Tanmay
oh that's a lot of hard work I hope you get great achievements can you tell me what all you are currently studying and which channel
Tanmay
oh that's a good strategy thank you
Tanmay
super
Jee
positional astronomy?
Tanmay
can you tell what positional astronomy is
Tanmay
I am fairly good in trigonometry but really bad at graphs
Tanmay
Hello everyone.Looks a cool discussion
Mahesh
ok I will practice thanks
Tanmay
where are you studying @Gurjinder
Mahesh
Jee
At which college I meañ.
Mahesh
Good
Mahesh
I want to be a astronomer,astrophysicist,theortical physicist and a engineer
Mahesh
I am not that good at self study
Mahesh
@Gurjinder that's a lot of hardwork I have high respect for you
Tanmay
I am always curious
Mahesh
Tanmay
Lol
Mahesh
is college better than school?
Pratiksha
l am in school
Jee
Mainly from feymann if you want a good grip of basics
Mahesh
me too
Pratiksha
I just completed so what.Learning has no age limit.
Mahesh
which standard
Jee
Tanmay
l no
Jee
I love the book on quantum mechanics
Mahesh
though I hate classical mechanics
Mahesh
yeah the education system in India just cares about Mark's I don't know what will happen to the new system
Tanmay
yeah! yr right
Pratiksha
I love the new system.
Mahesh
They are going to introduce
Mahesh
but I am happy to know that people around the world are destroying it
Tanmay
the old system
Tanmay
Hmmm
Mahesh
what is blue marble
it is the another name of earth.
you know when I was small, I had seen a comet ☄️ in the sky but I have a doubt that was that really a comet or meteors.. what is the difference between these two?
Do any one observe the moon every night?
I do look at it but with naked eyes
Tanmay
what do you see?
Shivam
sometime not every night as clouds are often there in the sky
Jugal
I look stars,Venus and moon by naked eye as I have no telescope yet
Jugal
how much does a telescope cost
Shivam
depending upon the resolution.....good resolution cost more
Jugal
I can some big dark spots from my naked eyes
Tanmay
A good telescope would cost 400\$
Tushar
I have 16 inch dobsonian(truss tube).I'm observing Orion nebula and studying it.
Tushar
wow I am jealous.
Mahesh
why
Tushar
I have made this telescope by my own efforts
Tushar
16 inch is big enough to see Galaxies and star clusters
Tushar
Mahesh
Yes
Tushar
But for that you need Some engineering skills and some proper guidance
Tushar
My Uncles helped me
Tushar
I'm from middle class family This project was funded by Uncles
Tushar
I am from a middle class family too
Mahesh
Uncommon For Me
Anti-Capitalism
What do you think will happen if we find humans rather than aliens on other planets?
Hmmm
Mahesh
let's assume that those humans are just like us physically and mentally. Then what do you think will happen?
Tanmay
We and those humans form a conference like meeting and talk to improve the connection from both sides
Mahesh
But I think that the connection won't be trustworthy
Tanmay
In the same they think about us...
Mahesh
yeah you are correct they might send imposters to collect more data about us
Tanmay
The same way trump and Kim are acting in front of media as they sorted it out...
Mahesh
this would be a really tough situation
Tanmay
You think so...
Mahesh
If you go to Europe there are high chances of underwater creatures what about that..
Mahesh
underwater creatures what? I didn't understand what you are saying
Tanmay
You know europa
Mahesh
yes
Tanmay
The water on europa is more than the water in our earth that is able to sustain lige
Mahesh
So scientists predicted that there maybe underwater life in europa
Mahesh
oh yes I heard it
Tanmay
So in the time of crisis we can go to europa and bulid underwater colonies.
Mahesh
ok but a lot of people would have to be left behind
Tanmay
it is smaller than our moon
Tanmay
But we can bulid underwater floating cities . scientists said that not me..
Mahesh
Yeah and I have been wanting to ask you. Are you a girl or boy..
Mahesh
I am a boy
Tanmay
ok
Mahesh
yeah I don't know who they will leave behind and who will go to that
Tanmay
what do you think who all will be left
Tanmay
I didn't quite catch the question.Say it again..
Mahesh
what do you think, who will be left behind in earth in the time of disaster and who all would go to europa
Tanmay
I don't think all humans can be able to travel.So some humans and animals
Mahesh
yeah the astronauts would have select people so what do you think that on what basis they will select us
Tanmay
I think all the productive people would be allowed in the ship
Tanmay
Hmm I don't know.Maybe the people who are on the verge of dying and who are incapable for space travel are left behind I think.
Mahesh
yeah all the people capable of continuing our generation would be allowed. I hope that time shall not come
Tanmay
It will come.Time is inevitable
Mahesh
Do you know that Newton predicted that the world will end in 2060
Mahesh
some were saying that world would end in 2016
Tanmay
but I never heard Newton about 2060 one
Tanmay
But this Newton we are talking about not a astrologer or civilization calaender
Mahesh
I mean I never heard Newton saying that
Tanmay
He said it is one of his works I think..
Mahesh
but according to sanskrit calendar the earth will be doomed is a million years or so
Tanmay
as told by my teacher that the "kal yug" will end in a million years
Tanmay
kaliyug..
Mahesh
Not kal you
Mahesh
oh yes that
Tanmay
Hmm let's see.Did you watch meowise
Mahesh
Neowise
Mahesh
no I don't know what that is
Tanmay
comet neowise
Mahesh
no I never saw or heard about it
Tanmay
Really.It appeared in last month for a period of days
Mahesh
did it come at the end of August?
Tanmay
or somewhere in middle?
Tanmay
Yeah
Mahesh
Middle it is..
Mahesh
oh then I would have been able to see that but I didn't
Tanmay
I just searched it and it's orbital period is ginormous 6766 years
Tanmay
Yeah
Mahesh
That's why so many star grazers have clicked many photos of it all around the world
Mahesh
yeah I saw the photos
Tanmay
have you heard about doomsday clock?
Tanmay
kind of..
Mahesh
Btw what is the logic of a doomsday clock
Debabrata
some people have made a community which based on political stuff change the time of this clock
Tanmay
for me this is worthless to be honest
Tanmay
Are we living in a simulation?
it could be true.
Shivam
at this time there is no way for us to find out that we are in a simulation or not
Tanmay
We can say our universe is a simulation if we were able to do time travel and find out that no matter what you do future will remain same
Tanmay
It could be true because in every 100 years a pandemic comes and tests us,how are we doing in management against pandemic.There are some people that are extraordinary and they are discovering things that are essential for us to know,.There are alot of ufo sightings on earth every year.
Shivam
and there was a rumour that NASA had 2 two alien bodies in area51.Why NASA is not sending more missions on moon and not going there.They are just focusing on Mars but not on moon,when every one is focusing on lunar research.
Shivam
what is the basic idea I need to genarate astronomy?
I didn't understand the question
Mahesh
as per my opinion, the basic ideas that you need to generate the interest in Astronomy can only be said by looking at your interested topics in Astronomy..There are different topics like steller astronomy,planetary astronomy,etc
Jugal
Astronomy is only a branch for which you don't have to go somewhere to get something.. Just you have to turn your head towards the night sky in a pollution less area and then you can start your observations 👍👍
Jugal
how many types of astronomy branches are the?
Shivam
if I take astronomy as my career.Would I study all of them or I have to study them separately.
Shivam
what is cosmology?
Shivam
you have to choose a particular topic in astronomy (not all) and have to do research on it...👍👍
Jugal
ok
Shivam
cosmology is also a branch of physics in which one have to do a deep study about the past, present and future condition of the Universe. It includes the questions like how our Universe formed,what were the condition at that time,how life formed. A cosmologist can also predicted the future condition
Jugal
ok
Shivam
but which branch of astronomy is the best?
Shivam
tell me meaning of all branches? please
Shivam
there are many branches like planetary astronomy, astrometry,solar Astronomy, stellar Astronomy, galactic Astronomy,radio astronomy,etc
Jugal
you have to do research on a particular topic and also have to write a thesis or book on your topic in PhD to complete your research degrees...after that you would become a successful Astronomer 🔭🔭
Jugal
which do you think is the best?
Shivam
What does type I, II, III civilization mean? How do we calculate it?
Type 1,2,3 civilization is the three categories of kardashvev scale which is a method of mesuring the tecnological advancement based on the amoumt of energy they can use
Type 1 civilization can use the full energy which was came from there host star and their host planet
type 2 civilization can use the hole energy of their host star
type 3 civilization can use the energy of their entire host galaxy
Ok but how can we calculate this is there any formula or some kind of energy output value or something?
Tanmay
A Type I civilization would have complete and total mastery over all the energy of its planet. A Type II civilization would be masters of all the energy produced by their home star, and a Type III civilization would own all the energy in their home galaxy.
Astronomy
The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization.
Astronomy
our civilization is 0.72
Mahesh
So the readings in Kardashev scale is based upon total energy consumption of a civilisation?
Tanmay
What is the lowest and highest value possible in this scale?
Tanmay
is time travel possible?
Shivam
Yes time travel is possible (in theory)...
Taj
Time is a physical property that can and IS affected by gravity... This has been PROVEN through experimentation via seismic clocks.
Taj
Shivam
no problem
Taj
The study of astronomy is really interesting, hard and full of amazing events
It Is The Oldest Of All The Science's.....
yeah!
Pratiksha
Do You Observe The Night Sky?
What Is Your Favorite Object Or Object's To Observe?
For Me, I Love Observing The Moon, It Allows You To Get Up Close And Personal, Like No Other Object Does.....
definitely have to agree with that (especially living near centre of the city), such clarity with very little effort. Jupiter is always a beautiful one to observe due to the positions of the moons and bands of colour, but would definitely agree that the moon is my fav 🙌
ben
yeah moon is my favourite as it easy to see and have many variations like supermoon red/blue moon etc. they look very cool
Tanmay
i also post images of saturn and Jupiter that i capture with my telescope.
Stardust
where?
Tanmay
do you post?
Tanmay
yeah, I also can't see the post
Pratiksha
my fav. Is Orion in night sky❤
Joker
my fav. is Orion In night sky
Joker
my fav. is Orion In night sky
Joker
i post photos of moons...of eartg Jupiter..and also saturn and mars if i get lucky
Stardust
stardust. you name is maverick in insta
Joker
yeah orion is the easiest to identify
Tanmay
my favorite is Saturn
John
hmm some real identity is being leaked X)
Tanmay
I just love looking at the night sky full of stars
Mahesh
yes night sky full of stars are also amazing thought it is rare now
Tanmay
Yes it's like a dream for some people to look up and observe the full potential of the night sky with their naked eye
Debabrata
hyy everyone I have a question that can we produce antigravity if yes how it works in space stations sucha nasa ,isro etc
Tahir
anti-gravity is the opposite of gravity and we are unable to detect or see it.They space station is accelerating so fast that they people there don't feel their weight because it's balanced by a opposing force caused by acceleration,those weight and opposing force cancel each other and that's why
Shivam
they feel weightlessness meaning no weight or our weight is=0
Shivam
the big bang is how astrnomers explain the way the universe began.
it is just one of the ways they explain the way the universe began.
Mahesh
There are other theories but big bang is widely accepted theory..
Mahesh
Hello astronomy fanatics
Sizwe
hi
Pratiksha
String theory is also one of them
Mahesh
But it is not accepted widely because for it to be right we should have 10 dimensions and scitentists failed to make it 3 dimensions
Mahesh
Although it is a more complicated one..Even the basics for it is a advanced calculus and differential geometry.And it is toughest chapter of physics after quantum mechanics.
Mahesh
What is correct definition of strings theory
Sizwe
Mahesh
What is the connection between the moon/full and the ocean?
Due to moon's gravitational pull tides in the oceans occur
Mahesh
the moons gravitational force is very high, that's why we see high tides during night time in the ocean...
Pratiksha
Hey bro you got a cool name out there and thanks for answering the question I was really curious
Tanmay
What did you guys thought
Tanmay
It's definitely a beautiful viewing
Safraunya
@tanmay which question
Mahesh
my question was that if you include spaces in your name only then your profile pic will be any alphabet or will be just blank
Tanmay
why was big bang happened?
God choice
Joker
There are 2 theories that say that why it happened first one said that big bang I nothing but start and death of universe that means before thas universe there was another universe that died when all the matter contracted into a single point and by that point our universe came up
Tanmay
the second theory is that we are in a simulation so yeah as Joker said God(higher beings)'s choice
Tanmay
well if you read stephen hawkings theory of everything book you will no about bigbang and also increases your imaginative power.It did for me...
Mahesh
you know Methuselah star disprove the big bang theory... according to the big bang theory there was nothing before the big bang, everything formed after it but Methuselah star was born before the big bang...means its age is more than the age of the Universe....you can check in the internet too..
Jugal
as I said there are uncertainty in the age of universe and the age of that star. If we take highest possible value of universe and lowest possible value of star's age then there is a big difference
Tanmay
yes you're right
Jugal
I wanna see the explosion from here😮😫
what do you want to explode?
Tanmay
nothing
Pratiksha
I want to see the star explosion from our mother earth
Pratiksha
then what are you saying is it by mistake?
Tanmay
you too..?
Pratiksha
ya
Pratiksha
I am a school girl, and I love astronomy and to know about universe
Pratiksha
oh yes I definitely want to see that
Tanmay
Oh I am also a school kid
Tanmay
What all astronomical events have you watched yourself?
Tanmay
which std you are in?
Pratiksha
12th
Tanmay
Pratiksha
I think one of our internet is slow wait for a moment
Tanmay
hello
Mahuva
I have watched stellar corpse and many other
Pratiksha
ya, ok
Pratiksha
hi
Tanmay
hello
Pratiksha
oh cool which star was that?
Tanmay
I don't know? 😮😅 I just watched
Pratiksha
so maximum are here kids I m college student 😊😊
Tahir
I have watched supermoons this quarantine nothing else that is special and some meteors
Tanmay
there are also some college students that are active in answering some questions every weekend
Tanmay
I about to enter in college
Mahesh
are we all students gathered here for event..?😅😂
Pratiksha
ys
Mahuva
ohh
Pratiksha
from which state you are ?
Mahuva
do u guys believe in big bang
Joker
I don't know, a little? I think so...
Pratiksha
a big yes
nischay
I also think that yes something was happened like big bang
Mahuva
ya i will also contribute for science
Mahuva
I believe in big bang
Tanmay
Methuselah star?
Joker
thank you so much stardust
Pratiksha
what's that..? methuselah star? I never heard about it!!
Pratiksha
HD 140 283 ( Methuselah) it's order than big bang
Joker
hey, all r Indians here right!!
Pratiksha
the big bang was happen in realistic
Pratiksha
unity in diversity. yeah we are all indian here
Joker
ya we all are Indians
Mahuva
how about me I'm Australian lol
George
may be. it's a theory. I don't think big bang happen bcz our universe is so complected and how our universe fit inside a sand like Prticale which have approximately infinite energy
Joker
yeah, that's true
Pratiksha
okay then what do you believe what is keeping us accelerated as dark energy was not always here
nischay
one is Australian! lol, well it's ok
Pratiksha
You are walking opposite
Joker
what you mean
nischay
gravity
Joker
and gravity of? a black hole?
nischay
well bro i don't understand you question
Joker
I am Hindi medium students so I don't know enough English
Joker
😂😂
Pratiksha
well
Pratiksha
well you are trying to say that big bang isn't real then what is exactly that is setting us in motion
nischay
fundamental forces
Joker
but i guess we should continue in english as not everyone is indian and let everyone to contribute in discussion
nischay
cool but which fundamental force?
nischay
yeah u r right
Joker
the all fundamental force
Joker
Hi everyone, my name is Srushti, any one of you own a pair of binoculars ?
Srushti
me also I don't have
almal
hello everyone
Mahesh
@Nischay the only fundamental force which can work at large distances,is the weakest force of all gravity
Mahesh
that's true but i don't think so that is the most dominant factor for our expansion , but big bang explosion and dark energy is
nischay
@joker Methuselah star's research is still going on and there is large uncertainty in its age although it's average life is greater than our universe's life.
Tanmay
wow!! that's great.
Pratiksha
Only gravity works at large distances and the only way we able to identify dark matter and dark energy is through their gravity.Which of the above reasons made to you think that it is dominant factor for expansion.
Mahesh
But if we take highest possible value of age of the universe and take lowest possible value of that stars age then there is a good difference in their ages so our calculations might be wrong
Tanmay
Slight correction which made you think it is not our dominat factor for expansion
Mahesh
Ok,now tell me how the planets and stars formed and some planets revolve around the stars.One must not forget gravity is not a just a force,it is a bend in the Curvature of space time.You why space acts as a vacuum.It is because of gravity.
Mahesh
scientist have predicted a lot about quark age just after the big bang but we still don't know anything at the time of big bang so we are quite sure big bang happened that's why that star is in the top of research list
Tanmay
how hypermassive black holes are formed?
Ganesh
hyper massive black holes are found at the centre of most galaxies they are made by the death of earliest stars in the universe which were ginormous due to the amount of gas clouds present at that time
Tanmay
quark age was recorded only for 10^-43 secs before nucleosy thesis era
Mahesh
And those are called supermassive not hypermassive tanmay
Mahesh
@joker you said you didn't believe in big bang because it seems weird that all the matter in our universe was compressed to one point having infinite energy then let me tell you that by this analogy we would also not believe in black holes which are real
Tanmay
oh yes sorry I forgot
Tanmay
don't worry a tiny mistake most will do
Mahesh
what r u all talking about?
Pratiksha
I was talking about the start of the big bang and why I believe it then gave the definition of super massive black hole while Joker and Mahesh discussed about big bang
Tanmay
@ganesh the mass of supermassive black holes goes up to billions of solar masses so a hyper massive black hole should be even higher than that so I think that the biggest black hole should be a hyper massive black hole
Tanmay
Never mind the biggest black hole is ton 618 and it is approximately 66 billion solar masses so there are no hyper massive black holes so we can't tell how they would be formed.
Tanmay
ohh!!
Pratiksha
the big bang, it's like time travel..?
Pratiksha
I think hyper massive black holes are made when a gas cloud weighing trillions of solar masses directly convert into a black hole due to its gravity
Tanmay
but the thing is before the collection of trillions of solar mass of gas cloud the weight of millions of gas cloud will convert into star and then the remaining mass will become accretion disk of the black hole
Tanmay
@Pratiksha I can't relate big bang and time travel by any means how do you think this might be connected
Tanmay
I though!!
Pratiksha
I didn't related to it
Pratiksha
you tried to make a connection didn't you?
Tanmay
@Mahesh got your point and thanks for correction but those points were solely to prove that it was big bang and our expansion is because of that explosion and dark energy . Also we use gravitational force to predict dark energy and matter because of it's nature but it doesn't means they are same
nischay
My way of thinking about bigbang is there used to be a universe which collapsed under it's own gravity and created a big explosion what we call a big bang and new matter was created which rises to formation of galaxies and planets stars etc.I think even one day our universe will again collapse
Mahesh
under it's gravity and create a another big bang and it goes on like cycle
Mahesh
that sounds good if we are able to prove heavenly bodies of even earlier then the big bang exist (i didn't read anything about this so idk 🤷🏻‍♂️).
nischay
no we can't prove it.It is just a theory I thought about while reading theory of everything
Mahesh
DUDE! read more and more there's nothing that we can't , you might be writting your research papers in a few years from now ;)
nischay
@Mahesh if we don't try to prove it then we can't say for sure it's can't be proven. If you don't prove it then someone else will humans are hungry for more knowledge after all
Tanmay
All about multiverses and it's theories.
I know that a multiverse has all the variations of universe that can and can't exist
Tanmay
Guys do you think that the multiverse is the most general thing that can exist as it will not be governed by any physics that we know?
Tanmay
Maybe we remember we only know a little about our own universe and what else is. Out there if humanity one day decides to leave and go explore the universe and gain a better understanding of how things work we will eventually
Utlwanang
are mirror images of a universe called multiverse too? what do you all think
Stardust
is mutliverse even a theory , or is it just a concept? do we have anything proven about it yet? prof. Hawking worked on it in his last time but died before even able to complete his papers
nischay
Hawking believed in multiverse theories and michio kaku and Carl sagan too.This three are good friends.
Mahesh
Read michio kaku parallel worlds.Itis interesting.
Mahesh
yeah I've already tried some books of michio kaku ,will check this out
nischay
sure you will
Mahesh
@stardust a multiverse has all the possible variations of universe possible so there will be one mirror universe too
Tanmay
If you want to discover something about them.You have to know about quantum mechanics and also some important theoretical facts.
Mahesh
@nischay multiverse is a theory given by many different scientist but no one was able to prove anything about it as it is really hard to test and see the multiverse
Tanmay
"them" ?
Tanmay
you mean those trio you mentioned earlier?
Tanmay
And also some particle physics.
Mahesh
which trio Carl,stephen,michio those?
Mahesh
yes
Tanmay
Mahesh
you said that if you wanted to discover about "them". I am saying that "them" are Carl Stephen Michio or something else
Tanmay
Mahesh
oh ok
Tanmay
(this is my theory) I think that multiverse is as big as our universe and keeps expanding with our universe all other universe are parallel to each other by using higher dimensions then 3 so we can't see them but time dimension might be same for all
Tanmay
So all the event that is happening is all happening at the same instant
Tanmay
Have you heard of hubble sphere
Mahesh
yes
Tanmay
what is it
almal
I don't know
almal
Hubble sphere is a spherical region of the observable universe surrounding an observer beyond which objects recede from that observer at a rate greater than the speed of light due to the expansion of the Universe. The Hubble volume is approximately equal to 10³¹ cubic light years.
Mahesh
I believe the volume is actually 10 to the 31st power cubic light years. So that's 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 cubic light years.
Bennett