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This was an amazing project: they counted argon atoms about once per month—and remember, they were looking for a tiny handful of argon atoms in a massive tank of chlorine atoms. When all was said and done, Davis’ experiment, begun in 1970, detected only about one-third as many neutrinos as predicted by solar models! This was a shocking result because astronomers thought they had a pretty good understanding of both neutrinos and the Sun’s interior. For many years, astronomers and physicists wrestled with Davis’ results, trying to find a way out of the dilemma of the “missing” neutrinos.

Eventually Davis’ result was explained by the surprising discovery that there are actually three types of neutrinos. Solar fusion produces only one type of neutrino    , the so-called electron neutrino, and the initial experiments to detect solar neutrinos were designed to detect this one type. Subsequent experiments showed that these neutrinos change to a different type during their journey from the center of the Sun through space to Earth in a process called neutrino oscillation .

An experiment, conducted at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada, was the first one designed to capture all three types of neutrinos ( [link] ). The experiment was located in a mine 2 kilometers underground. The neutrino detector consisted of a 12-meter-diameter transparent acrylic plastic sphere, which contained 1000 metric tons of heavy water. Remember that an ordinary water nucleus contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Heavy water instead contains two deuterium atoms and one oxygen atom, and incoming neutrinos can occasionally break up the loosely bound proton and neutron that make up the deuterium nucleus. The sphere of heavy water was surrounded by a shield of 1700 metric tons of very pure water, which in turn was surrounded by 9600 photomultipliers, devices that detect flashes of light produced after neutrons interact with the heavy water.

Sudbury neutrino detector.

Photograph of the Sudbury Neutrino Detector. The 12-meter diameter sphere is shown with the interconnected triangular support structures, as well as the matrix of photodetectors covering its surface.
The 12-meter sphere of the Sudbury Neutrino Detector lies more than 2 kilometers underground and holds 1000 metric tons of heavy water. (credit: A.B. McDonald (Queen’s University) et al., The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Institute)

To the enormous relief of astronomers who make models of the Sun, the Sudbury experiment detected about 1 neutrino per hour and has shown that the total number of neutrinos reaching the heavy water is just what solar models predict. Only one-third of these, however, are electron neutrinos. It appears that two-thirds of the electron neutrinos produced by the Sun transform themselves into one of the other types of neutrinos as they make their way from the core of the Sun to Earth. This is why the earlier experiments saw only one-third the number of neutrinos expected.

Although it is not intuitively obvious, such neutrino oscillations can happen only if the mass of the electron neutrino is not zero. Other experiments indicate that its mass is tiny (even compared to the electron). The 2015 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to researchers Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald for their work establishing the changeable nature of neutrinos. (Raymond Davis shared the 2002 Nobel Prize with Japan’s Masatoshi Koshiba for the experiments that led to our understanding of the neutrino problem in the first place.) But the fact that the neutrino has mass at all has deep implications for both physics and astronomy. For example, we will look at the role that neutrinos play in the inventory of the mass of the universe in The Big Bang .

Questions & Answers

is time travel possible?. Practically?!!
Elisha Reply
what is latitudes
SOURAV Reply
latitudes are the measurement of distance north or south of the Equator . It is measured with 180 imaginary lines that form circles around the earth east - west , parallel to the Equator . These lines are known as parallels.
Saumya
does universe has a limit
THE Reply
no
Vinisha
dear Vinisha, will you please tell me what is 4 dimension?
THE
no its unlimited
SOURAV
no
Saumya
is their life on mars
Darius Reply
yes, as of now..
Rosselle
alien?
THE
Mars does not have either a magnetic field or an ozone layer to protect it's surface from the harmful u.v rays. so there is no way life can be possible on mars.
Elisha
but can't live in that planet due to lack of oxygen at the rate of 13 % That we considered as dengouros of 16 %
SOURAV
I don't think so .
Saumya
what is the origin of the universe
Ummisalmah Reply
Big Bang
Michele
what is it first cause
Ummisalmah
is its existence necessary
Ummisalmah
from where the first energy came during big bang?
Bysali
the steady state theory may be true too
Shaunak
from big bang
SOURAV
it all began with the singularity...
Elisha
a single atom i.e singularity
Saumya
no...singularity means infinitely small, which mathematically is 1/♾ single atom is way to large as compared to a singularity
Shaunak
oh thanks for correcting me
Saumya
Did there is any life probability on titan (largest moon of saturn)
sanjay Reply
Yes, there could be a possibility of existance of life because Titan is full icy mountains which are one form of water and. could assist in microbial growth
Astronomy
although life is not yet detected on it, it is theorized that when the sun starts its red giant phase, the temperatures on titan,enceladus,etc will become suitable for life and they may develop an atmosphere too
Shaunak
What is 5 dimension
Sourav Reply
hi
Danbirnianz
yo!!!
Bennett
5 dimension is truth
Bennett
form - order - structure - society - TRUTH
Bennett
nice topic! i reread this.
TPonder
why not string theory called a theory of everything
Harsh Reply
Perhaps because string theory is useless when discussing "things" like music theory, or morality and justice. Therefore cannot be a theory of "everything."
Bennett
why the energy cost
MASTER Reply
what is sagittarius
Noorzad Reply
what is gimine
Noorzad
Black hole of Milky way galaxy
deepanshu
thanks a lot for your sympath and information
Noorzad
thanks a lot for your sympath and information Deepanshu
Noorzad
Hello: My friends, How do you do?
zin
(Sagittarius A) is a name of black hole ,present center of Milky Way
Harsh
this question is for atheists what created humans , how did they evolve
ilyes Reply
not entirely sure what this question has to do with Atheism but, firstly, there is no "who", life evolved in multiple paths, humans are simply one of those paths. The process of how life evolves is a very complicated but very well researched field of biology, so it would be worth doing research...
ben
...into that field, evolution isnt disputed. However, the direct path from the common ancestor (that we share with chimps) has not yet been completed. But know for sure that humans didn't just magically appear one day, it was over millions of years of evolution
ben
(I must ask though, what has this got to do with Atheism?)
ben
idk i thought believers will say god created us
ilyes
there are many types of believers one say that god created consciousness, one say we just magically appeared out of nowhere, and one say universe was created by God(all based on people I have met so far)
Tanmay
Hey
Asim
Tanmay!
Asim
Hello
Asim
hello Asim
Tanmay
hi my friends asim and tqnmay we hhave lern okay
Eyiba
did u forget me!!
Amit
Could God have created evolution? Nope, no way, too complicated.
Bennett
yes god can do that in theory
Tanmay
@Eyiba hello
Tanmay
@Amit seems like that XD
Tanmay
haha🤣🤣
Amit
This question is for theists, what created God?
Anthony
hi
UFOLIENS
God was begotten, not made. More of a concept than an entity.
Bennett
hello
Stuart
Hi🙂🙂
Harsh
Hi🙂🙂
Harsh
Hi🙂🙂
Harsh
Hi🙂🙂
Harsh
we came by God not real old stinky water
Bryant
Here people don't have a goal to become astronomers ,rather they want to become astrologers,with this mindset,there won't be any progress in this void earth as Feynman says in his book "if I could explain it to the average person (like how astrologers do) I wouldn't have been worth the nobel price".
Akshar
God did not create the universe.. Humans created god, possibly to fill in an unwanted reality no1 wants to believe because life can be a struggle for most.
Collins
astronomy and astrology diverged from the same concept, to deny either one is to deny them both.
Bennett
God created the universe ofcourse
Khairat
GOD CREATED THE UNIVERSE
Susanna
Some will use the Big Bang Theory, which even if statistically plausible, falls flat on it's face when you apply the law of angular momentum... If the universe evolved from a spinning dot-like singularity, why are some moons, planets, galaxies spinning backwards?
Taj
collisions with other planetary bodies can cause planets and other objects to rotate backwards. Venus and Uranus both have a retrograde rotation.
Eva
Also, we now know that we live in a digital universe, how can the origin of information be explained? Aliens from another galaxy? From an astrophysics standpoint that's not plausible unless their technology is so advanced that they can manipulate wormholes, intergalactic travel is HIGHL speculative
Taj
aliens could have unknown tecnologies! in theory aliens could control universe in many different ways! but it Is only a theory! humans(we all) don't Know aliens ufficially, aliens could not exist, so in this time we Can do only theories fantastic and not scientific! w umanity!w astronomy!
Michele
So if aliens exist, does that negate the possibility of their being an all-powerful God? Because you still must account for the actual ORIGIN of information...
Taj
@bennet God was not made nor begotten
Khairat
"..we must, of course ask next where God comes from. And if we decide this to be unanswerable, why not save a step and decide that the origin of the universe is an unanswerable question? Or, if we say that God has always existed, why not save a step an conclude that the universe has always existed?
Eva
-Carl Sagan
Eva
questing for God is unnecessary because you get "who created god" and then "who created the one that created god" endlessly
Eva
Certain entropic laws prove that the universe is NOT infinite.. It had a beginning... Also to say that God didn't have a beginning would imply an infinite regression of events...
Taj
If an all-powerful God exists then He created space-time itself... Time is a physical property that can be manipulated via gravity and velocity... E=mc2 AND experimental data confirms this... Time is NOT a set constant. The Universe had a beginning, then who set time in motion?
Taj
Einstein even came to believe in God because of the mathematics.. Also if someone can give a logical explanation as to why entire moons, planets, and entire galaxies are spinning backwards, then I'd love to hear it..
Taj
there is a person up there controlling everything, creater of our world- is a very childish concept. the theists and atheists are essentially the different sides of the same coin, they both believe in something about which they do not have a proof.
Shaunak
we should focus on science and seek answers to our questions instead of wasting our time debating about stupid things like God, about which we don't know a thing
Shaunak
there are various hypothesis regarding the origin of life like the abiogenesis and panspermia. as for the evolution, the gentleman named Charles Darwin has already answered that question
Shaunak
yes I agree with you all but then some of us do not believe in the big bang,so there must be a controller of our universe indeed and that is God
Khairat
well
Tao
what is FACt is
Tao
The big is not the only theory regarding the origin of the universe out there. There is the steady state theory which was popular before hawking popularized the big bang theory. Also, Sir Roger Penrose has his own different theory.
Shaunak
if you research then you will find that although we do not know a lot of things, there is no need for a "God"
Shaunak
I myself do not believe in anything. if someone shows me God I will start believing. if someone proves me that God does not exist, I will become an atheist
Shaunak
why
Tao
fact is
Tao
what is is
Tao
deitys are were mere beings
Tao
so
Tao
BTW do u know about the anunaki
Tao
so
Tao
@shaunak Sean Carroll calls himself a "naturalist" because he does not believe in God but he will change his mind upon evidence. that's pretty much an atheist but he says the term naturalist is more fitting. he believes in the physics and nature of the universe!
Eva
some evolved some not. like mythology has talk of outer earthly coming on earth
Tao
the San bush people the Hopi natives the Tibetan saying about beings making them
Tao
hello everyone
Dark
anyone can explain black hole
Dark
well I am not denying that there were some great people in very very ancient times, that we worship as gods and divine entities. I am just saying that they also were human beings like us, just extra ordinary.
Shaunak
also, we are not doing something wrong when we worship them today, for example, Jesus, Ram, Krishna,etc. I am just saying we should not misunderstand the worshipping by believing that they are indeed gods who created us and the whole universe.
Shaunak
for example the great Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar is known as the God of cricket in India. but that is just because what he did in his career was extraordinary. that doesn't mean he literally is a God
Shaunak
not the whole universe no. and yes worshipping is not needed. all in the all are equal . just another bitpart in the all
Tao
@Eva , I did not know that term before, but now that I know it, that may be a fitting term for me. I think everyone should be that way, not believing something without evidence or proof
Shaunak
@Tao Zen, yes. worshipping Is not needed at all.
Shaunak
what is is and what is not is not. factuality. so the paranormal is a fact too. like nde experiences account for other realms. light dark will always be a part. all are a part in the all . nothing more nothing less
Tao
I was just saying that it is not a problem if someone does worship
Shaunak
paranormal is fact? bruh srsly? although I do not deny the evidence for it, it is very vague, based upon personal experiences of people and highly doubtful. Also no serious research has been carried out in this area and it is not experimentally verified.
Shaunak
esp parapsychology telekenises telepathy . Tibetan monks thetha waves. you just check. NDE experience YouTube . reincarnation YouTube. enough material to go through
Tao
if you wanna know seriously how the universe came to be ask me. I ll hook you up with the info
Tao
let me known if you really wanna know seriously how the universe came to be
Tao
for actual scienze humanity was created for casual events and not by aliens! but some scientist says humanity was created by aliens! in this time it is not exact for actual scienze (but it is not impossibile).........
Michele
check accounts of the tribes of how they were made san bush people Hopi natives Tibetan creation myths
Tao
"myths" is the keyword here
Shaunak
its information about ' makers'
Tao
homo erectus to homo sapiens has a missing link
Tao
that is due to lack of research not due to a miracle
Shaunak
the San bush people have information about being made by praying mantis type of aliens/ makers. so do the tibetans information goes they were made out of makaks
Tao
there is evidence of outer earthly forces . alien lifeforms. the myths . happenings are all over the world. the dogon tribe in mali
Tao
etc.
Tao
we being made by aliens is a valid hypothesis, very interesting to think indeed...
Shaunak
its maybe us on earth but not every planet has the same history. according to some information . some reptoid intelligent species evolved here before us.
Tao
@Tao Zen, hey, I am curious, how come you claim to know about the origin of the universe? because even scientists haven't figured that out...
Shaunak
I can otherwise send you the YouTube link with the information
Tao
let's wassap
Tao
yes pls. do send the link
Shaunak
i Will do tomorrow now no possible
Tao
but if you type . Linda Moulton howe and jerry wills. yu ll get a video. are we living in a simulation. 1/2 hour vid. yull get the info
Tao
ok
Shaunak
tell me if you found it
Tao
may i ask a question
Raluca Reply
yes why not you don't need to ask anyone for permission
Tanmay
sure, why not?
ca
-Why there are moons in every planet but there's note in mercure ?
Amal Reply
Well with mercury Venus also does not have moon.The reason that Mercury is not having moons is since it is too close to sun and thus if it would have any moon orbiting it ,then the moon will eventually attracted by sun due to it's high gravitational force whereas mercury has the lowest gravity
Anjali
The gravitational force of mercury is lowest in solar system and it won't be able to hold a moon in it's orbit
Anjali
Nice explanation
Asim
Thank you brother
Anjali
Did general theory of relativity leads us to singularity?
Asim
yes the general theory of relativity leads us to singularity
Anjali
But Einstein was not a believer of big bang. And singularity lead us to big bang?
Asim
yes Einstein was really astonished by his mathmatical answers that came fron his equations (this is what almost every one says)
Tanmay
and there are many theories stating how our universe came in which one is big bang
Tanmay
Einstein was against the fact that anything can come from nothing that our big bang says and he also thought that singularity (infinite mass in zero volume) can not be real(also what most people say)
Tanmay
also what most people say means that there is no evidence that he was against all these things
Tanmay
Okay
Asim
Tanmay
Asim
anything else
Tanmay
Do you believe that grand unified theory can be complete in future?
Asim
Do you believe that grand unified theory will be complete in future?
Asim
yes I do believe in it as I also believe big bang
Tanmay
Well i don't believe in big bang like Einstein didn't.
Asim
do you believe in wormholes are real?
Amit
@Asim then what do you think our universe came from or how it started
Tanmay
Well it's a myth.
Asim
@Amit I believe wormholes are real
Tanmay
It came from nothing Tanmay.
Asim
Even I believe in wormholes
Anjali
So Tanmay you must believe in baby universes.?
Asim
I believe that they are many things we can't explain or give prove but they are theories,imaginations and they are the basics for new discoveries
Anjali
So ,it is useless to argue over them
Anjali
But we should try to find new possibilities if we don't believe in old ones
Anjali
you are right @anjali
Amit
what is dark matter?
Amit
can a star turn into planet?
Amit
I have doubt on how Stephen hawking posses ideas of black hole by himself?
Enceladus
why do people believe in God and how are humans made
ilyes
No amit star can't turn into planet.
Asim
you are wrong asim
Amit
also Asim, please tell me why you think the big bang is a myth?
ben
@Asim what do you mean by it came from nothing what came from nothing
Tanmay
@Asik I don't know what baby universe is if you mean early universe then the question doesn't make sense
Tanmay
@Amit starts can become cold enough for us to live at high altitude but their surface will still be made of plasma
Tanmay
@Amit dark matter is a type of substance that doesn't interact with normal matter and also gives galaxies enough mass to hold its stars rather than to fly out by its rotation
Tanmay
Sorry Asim for wrong spelling of your name
Tanmay
@Tanmay thanks for your explanation
Amit
@Tanmay but a star can turn into a planet, but this transformation only happens for a very particular type of star known as a brown dwarf.
Amit
oh, somebody has google 😂
ben
I will check and then I will tell you if it's true or not thanks for the question
Tanmay
I will check as it is really wierd but thanks for your question
Tanmay
(oh no I was joking hahaha, Amit just took the definition that you see first on google and pasted)
ben
Tanmay baby universes is when something fell in black hole it's went into another universe called baby universe according to Stephen hawking. Well i don't know weather to believe it or not.
Asim
Amit brown dwarf are not planet or stars they have their own classification these are basically failed star, not massive enough to power hydrogen fission reaction.
Asim
ahh, didn't he use that to explain where "information" goes? because recently a paper was published stating that information may actually be re-emitted by the black hole as 'encoded' hawking radiation
ben
(so it may not be going to another universe, but instead coming back into our own)
ben
Hawking radiation are basically the the radiation emitted by black hole boundaries called event horizon.
Asim
@ben someone asked me this question today so i asked here and also google it..
Amit
So re-emitting doesn't make scene.
Asim
every black hole contains a singularity?
Amit
Yep absolutely.
Asim
ohhh, no worries dude, and yeah hawking radiation is a consequence of both quantum mechanics and relativity, really cool. And look it up Asim, it's a really interesting read
ben
but a singularity is a point in space where there is a mass with a infinte density. the problem is that infinities never exist in real world.
Amit
Ben it's really difficult to relate quantum mechanics to relativity.
Asim
Dude if you have done nobel price is waiting for you. (haha)
Asim
consequence of both quantum mechanics and relativity.!!!
Amit
Amit read theory of relativity and black hole singularities in Google. Everything will be cleared.
Asim
🤣🤣🤣
Amit
ok i will read this
Amit
hahahahaha, yeah that's true I'm being lazy as hell there haha, I mean more it's something relates the big and small (it's cool to see quantum phenomena having a direct effect on something predicted by relativity)
ben
(if a GUT is found I genuinely doubt I'd be able to comprehend the maths hahaha, maybe a long a way down the road but not yet)
ben
ben you are nominated for nobel as well as oscar for your thoughts..(hahaha)
Amit
what's you thinks about gravitational waves gentlemen?
Amit
hahahaha, and I love what I know so far but honestly dude, I've learnt essentially nothing about gravitational waves at university yet, I'm hoping that's going to be next year
ben
I would love to ask someone what the effects of constructive ans destructive interference of gravitational waves would be. Would total destructive interference lead to black holes?
ben
good luck for your next year... ben
Amit
if such things happen that's gonna be amazing.....
Amit
eyy thank you dude, likewise man, wish you all the best for your endeavours
ben
eyy cheers dude, likewise for you man, wishing all the best for you
ben
thanks buddy..
Amit
💝❤
Amit
(my bad, sometimes my phone wont show the first message as being sent, so I send another just in case)
ben
Gravitational Waves could help us travel faster in the space, if we are to set on an adventure like the one in The Interstellar, lol. Just saying
Awesh
what do u think created the universe
ilyes
m curious
ilyes
I believe in the theory where it states that our universe came from death of another universe and after our universe's death another universe will come from it
Tanmay
@Amit if that's what baby universe is then
Tanmay
my current understanding of universe and black holes, I would have to disbelief it
Tanmay
@Asim @Amit there is a feild in physics where we study about the physics of those objects who have intermediate size and follow some rules of quantum physics and relativity
Tanmay
@Ben what is full form of GUT?
Tanmay
@Ben I have never seen anyone spotting interference with gravitational waves but most of the people think that it will just be like interference in waves like light or sound. Do that means it's amplitude will change and will not create and black holes or stuff
Tanmay
@Awesh yes many people in youtube(some have good degrees and are astrophysicist) say that warping space is possible using gravitational waves
Tanmay
Do you all believe in multiverse
Anjali
I believe in multiverse
Tanmay
The relation between quantum physics and relativity is like sky and the land (hahaha)
Amit
what about the air between sky(let's assume height of clouds is sky) and land. It basically means that there is a field like that you should google it up
Tanmay
it's the most mysterious field and we almost know nothing about it. there are no laws(like Newton's law of motion) or something like that
Tanmay
The most undifined and fascinating theory is string theory what do u think about it?
Amit
how can I learned quantum mechanics
Harsh
what is the model about the earth being the center of the universe called?
Lordgy Reply
geocentric model
SCIENCE
I hope you got your answer.
SCIENCE
heliocentric universe
Jason
you are wrong Jason skerbinc
SCIENCE
in heliocentric model sun is at the center of the universe
Tanmay
what is black hole and stellar black hole
azeb Reply
A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape from it and for the stellar black hole, it's a black hole which is formed when a star with a mass of 3× that of the sun collapses under gravity~it has a radius uo to 30km.
Iman

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