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Seen through a telescope, Jupiter is a colorful and dynamic planet. Distinct details in its cloud patterns allow us to determine the rotation rate of its atmosphere at the cloud level, although such atmosphere rotation may have little to do with the spin of the underlying planet. Much more fundamental is the rotation of the mantle and core; these can be determined by periodic variations in radio waves coming from Jupiter, which are controlled by its magnetic field. Since the magnetic field (which we will discuss below) originates deep inside the planet, it shares the rotation of the interior. The rotation period we measure in this way is 9 hours 56 minutes, which gives Jupiter the shortest “day” of any planet. In the same way, we can measure that the underlying rotation period of Saturn is 10 hours 40 minutes. Uranus and Neptune have slightly longer rotation periods of about 17 hours, also determined from the rotation of their magnetic fields.

Remember that Earth and Mars have seasons because their spin axes, instead of “standing up straight,” are tilted relative to the orbital plane of the solar system. This means that as Earth revolves around the Sun, sometimes one hemisphere and sometimes the other “leans into” the Sun.

What are the seasons like for the giant planets? The spin axis of Jupiter is tilted by only 3°, so there are no seasons to speak of. Saturn , however, does have seasons, since its spin axis is inclined at 27° to the perpendicular to its orbit. Neptune has about the same tilt as Saturn (29°); therefore, it experiences similar seasons (only more slowly). The strangest seasons of all are on Uranus , which has a spin axis tilted by 98° with respect to the north direction. Practically speaking, we can say that Uranus orbits on its side, and its ring and moon system follow along, orbiting about Uranus’ equator ( [link] ).

Infrared image of uranus.

Uranus in the Infrared. The left-hand panel shows Uranus, with its rings, moons and some surface features. Due to the tilt of Uranus, we see the rings completely surround the planet, giving the appearance of a “bull’s eye”. The right-hand panel shows the same scene 90 minutes later, with labels. The moons are labeled with arrows indicating their motion in the 90 minutes between the photographs. Starting in the center of the image directly above Uranus is the moon “Belinda”. Moving counter clockwise around Uranus are: “Rosalind”, “Desdemona”, “Juliet”, “Cressida”, “Bianca”, “Portia”, and “Puck”. Closer to the planet the bright “Epsilon Ring” is labeled. The south pole is marked with a “+” on the left side of the disk of the planet. The “Equator” is also labeled. Finally, a cloud feature south of the equator is indicated with an arrow.
The infrared camera on the Hubble Space Telescope took these false-color images of the planet Uranus, its ring system, and moons in 1997. The south pole of the planet (marked with a “+” on the right image) faces the Sun; its green color shows a strong local haze. The two images were taken 90 minutes apart, and during that time the five reddish clouds can be seen to rotate around the parallel to the equator. The rings (which are very faint in the visible light, but prominent in infrared) and eight moons can be seen around the equator. This was the “bull’s eye” arrangement that Voyager saw as it approached Uranus in 1986. (credit: modification of work by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), and NASA/ESA)

We don’t know what caused Uranus to be tipped over like this, but one possibility is a collision with a large planetary body when our system was first forming. Whatever the cause, this unusual tilt creates dramatic seasons. When Voyager 2 arrived at Uranus, its south pole was facing directly into the Sun. The southern hemisphere was experiencing a 21-year sunlit summer, while during that same period the northern hemisphere was plunged into darkness. For the next 21-year season, the Sun shines on Uranus’ equator, and both hemispheres go through cycles of light and dark as the planet rotates ( [link] ). Then there are 21 years of an illuminated northern hemisphere and a dark southern hemisphere. After that the pattern of alternating day and night repeats.

Questions & Answers

how many stars are there in the world
ZERO Reply
we can't count them because there are infinity no. of Star
YOG
but in night sky there are approximately 100 thousand million stars
YOG
Visually speaking, there's only one in the day and a few thousand in my Tellurian corner of the world at night. And some of those stars may even be galaxies, too far to properly discern as billions points of light. The longer you gaze into the skies the more they manifest themselves. Keep watching!
Jocofranc
why people go to other planet
Rehan Reply
to explore mysteries and also for some new resources and life form
YOG
Presumably to find an alternative for our earth, since our population has been increasing at a crazy rate and we'd slowly be running out of space here, if we'd continue. Another point would be the scientific value. Apart from testing our knowledge we always hope to find a new form of life.
creative
and in future when life from earth will vanished then to maintain our existance we need a new planet.
YOG
History shows our insatiable appetite for energy. The mass tends to congregate around developed communities where energy is readily accessible. It's inevitable we will be become exo-tellurians. Necessity fuels our explorations.
Jocofranc
👏 Well said! @jocofranc knight
Jennifer
what was before big bang
Manish Reply
The creator and their empire
Mahesh
Like ur answer but submitting a light-hearted suggestion of my own : Our universe a galactic-verse of many other billions that are clustered tightly together in a super-constellate. The Big Bang was the result of a magnetic wave originating from inside the constellate desrupting our serene corner.
Jocofranc
nice to here jocofranc, please explain what is before big bang
Mahesh
This increasingly hypothetical scenario suggest that the Big Bang was created when a superwave from this so-call Super-Constellate destabilized our dormant singularity. The wave was the catalyst. When this wave stops buckling our galactic-verse, it will recede back to a singularity. Ok it was God.
Jocofranc
how fast light travel around the earth
Starbuck Reply
lol
Videos
If you could travel at the speed of light, you could go around the planet 7.5 times in one second
Greg
how was moon formed
Kosi Reply
what is steral evolution (star evolution
meron Reply
hi
Nisha
when a star's mass changes over time
Joe
hi
Joe
hi
Lisette
Hii
Asim
hi
Nisha
what big bang
Nisha
yes joe over time chang star mass
Nisha
star prouduce nucluer fusion first stag ( hydroge fusion helium- carbon-neon-oxygen-silicon- last fusion iron hevy star mass not handle iron blast super nova
Nisha
what is the worm hole theory
Nisha Reply
it states that you can travel back through time by this. It's like folding a paper into half and making two points, and there states that you can bend spacetime but according to Einstein's equation that it can break easily and only really small particles can pass through it.
Dark
dark dream what is dark matter
Nisha
what is the great filter theory
Nisha
the great filter theory it's just like the literally filtering it says that when once a civilization achieved its highest state or let's say the highest technology for instance their civilization will end.
Dark
what is radio burst
Nisha
please answer
Nisha
what is the simulatin hypothies
Nisha
smart obsevatin
Nisha
In radio astronomy, a fast radio burst (FRB) is a transient radiopulse of length ranging from a fraction of a millisecond to a few milliseconds, caused by some high-energy astrophysical process not yet identified. We can say that this can be they way to at least know if there's other civilizations~
Dark
~out there
Dark
Simulation hypothesis it proposes that the earth, the universe and the reality you are in is just an artificial simulation or like you are living in a computer simulation.
Dark
sir possible time travel
Nisha
?
Nisha
Yes. Everything is possible.
Dark
replay
Nisha
thanks
Nisha
sir how to make neutron star
Nisha
replay
Nisha
?
Nisha
sir what is the white hole?
Nisha
hi good morning
Nisha
why does the matter of an objects density change the fabric of space time rather than the objects volume..? (hopefully I have expressed that question properly) thanks
Daijahrel Reply
because an objects density consists of it's energy & momentum. an objects volume, for example a photon can have no density (hopefully I expressed that answer properly)
Joe
I suppose each Individual has his or hers different laws and assumptions, so it can be difficult to ask and answer physics questions, but discussions are always positive
Joe
how
Melaku
which matter use rocket
Nisha
Does their is any procedure of star making
Asim Reply
Hope That Helps.....
Adam
how to produce star and how to dead star?
Nisha
waad mahad santnihiin dhamaan waxaan doonayaa inaan wax ka barto astronomyga waa maxay xidigis?
Abdicaroog Reply
understanding astronomy
ricardo Reply
What About Understanding Astronomy?
Adam
yap
Janmarc
what is astronomy?
Janmarc
define..
Janmarc
Currently, I'm studying in 10th grade. What should I do after my 10th so that I can get an astronomy career?
Chaya Reply
try jee exam and achieve a good score in jee advance to join in IIST(Space research institute)
Sri
okay.. thanks
Chaya
Hey there I want to be an astrophysicist... and I'm grade 9... what should I do to be an astrophysicist
Aymen
Know more about space,watch movies related to space ,and to become an astrophysicist u should be very good in physics,train urself to think everything logically. Start to focus on JEE Exam ,train urself or join any institute which is good in coaching for JEE ,then if u score high ,u can join IIST
Sri
Which is the best university for Astronomy
Asim
Probably Massachusetts Institute Of Technology.....
Adam
Math Math Math, Get Familiar With All Types Of Math.....
Adam
Which subject is most important for Astronomy
Asim
Geometry, Algebra, Calculus, Trigonometry, Do Alot Of It And Often.....
Adam
I Can't Say It Enough, Math Is The Language Of The Cosmos.....
Adam
Adam you are in which university?
Asim
I Went To University But Never Finished My Degree..... Had To Work And Couldn't Afford School.....
Adam
MaryMount University..... Philosophy Of Science Major.....
Adam
It ia a cathloic University. Am i write
Asim
And its main campas is in Arlington country
Asim
No, It's In New York City.....
Adam
It's Not A Catholic University.....
Adam
Ohh sorry
Asim
Are you interested in Astronomy
Asim
IIT ain't so good for Pure Astronomy. If you want to know how the universe works,go for pure science. If you want to make spacecraft,go for Aerospace Engineering
priyanshu
Your are in which university brother
Asim
I Love Astronomy, I'm An Active Amateur Astronomer.....
Adam
I also love Astronomy very much
Asim
And to help me to solve some puzzling questions
Asim
this famous person was the first to recognise earthshine on the moin
Rajan Reply
Leonardo Da Vinci.....
Adam
what is string theory?
sakshi Reply
A Cosmological Theory Based On The Exsistence Of Cosmic Vibrating Strings.....
Adam
Good Morning Asim Ali.....
Adam
I Can't Do That, You Can Ask Me What Ever You Want.....
Adam
If you don't mind can i ask why?
Asim
Do You Understand The Millions Of People Have Access To This Site, I Wouldn't Put My Information Out There, Knowing What People With Bad Intent Can Do With Personal Information.....
Adam
Ohh sorry
Asim
My question is that, there are many collision of stars in a day So that cause black hole. But is there any procedure of star making? Hopefully i ask my question properly.
Asim
No Need To Apologize, I Will Answer Anything You Need Answered And If I Can't Answer It I Will Guide You To The Answer.....
Adam
Thier Is Only One Way Stars Are Made, Gravity Makes Matter Come Together, And When The Amount Of Matter Gets Massive Enough Nuclear Fusion Starts Up And A Star Is Born.....
Adam
What is white drawft?
Asim
A White Dwarf Is A Low Mass Star That Has Exhausted All It's Central Nuclear Fuel And Lost It's Outer Layers As A Planetary Nebula.....
Adam
what is the great filter theory
Nisha
hi adam what is great filter theory
Nisha
Well First It's Not A Theory, It's A Hypothesis, The Great Filter Hypothesis States That What Ever Causes Dead Matter To Under Go Abiogenesis(Start Of Life) Must Be Very Hard And Very Rare In Our Universe, Because So Far We Only See 1 Civilisation That Made Through All The Requirements For.....
Adam
Intelligent Life, So Far Only Our Planet Has Intelligent Life, That We Know Of, And Again This Is Only A Hypothesis, No Evidence Exist To Back This Up.....
Adam
hi adam sir
Nisha
Good Day.....
Adam
Good to see you sir
Asim
hi
Nisha
good day
Nisha
hi
Nisha
Same Here.....
Adam
What's The Good Word For The Day?
Adam
Does MIT have good astrophysics courses ?
priyanshu Reply
Probably The Best In The United States.....
Adam
But Don't Get Caught Up On Who's The Best, You Can Be The Next Noble Winning Astrophysicist.....
Adam
hmmm..........that's nice one....Adam had said.....
Gospel
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Source:  OpenStax, Astronomy. OpenStax CNX. Apr 12, 2017 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11992/1.13
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