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Chapter 0: Introduction to sociology 2e

Preface Read Online

About openstax

OpenStax is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of modern college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations.

About this book

Welcome to Introduction to Sociology 2e , an OpenStax resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in sociology. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions.

To broaden access and encourage community curation, Introduction to Sociology 2e is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at

To the student

This book is written for you and is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous sociologists. In today’s global socially networked world, the topic of sociology is more relevant than ever before. We hope that through this book, you will learn how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world. In this book, you will find applications of sociology concepts that are relevant, current, and balanced.

To the instructor

This text is intended for a one-semester introductory course. Since current events influence our social perspectives and the field of sociology in general, OpenStax encourages instructors to keep this book fresh by sending in your up-to-date examples to so that students and instructors around the country can relate and engage in fruitful discussions.

General approach

Introduction to Sociology 2e adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences.

Changes to the second edition

Part of the mission of the second edition update was to ensure the research, examples and concepts used in this textbook are current and relevant to today’s student. To this end, we have rewritten the introduction of each chapter to reflect the latest developments in sociology, history and global culture. In addition to new graphs and images, the reader of the second edition will find new feature boxes on a diverse array of topics, which has been one of the goals of the update—bringing the world into greater focus through case studies on global culture.

In this assignment you will learn about the characteristics that marriage has in all societies and about the variations in marriage forms that are found throughout the world.

You will learn about the functions that marriage fulfills, about the types of marriage that are most common under different circumstances, and about atypical forms of marriage that are found in some societies.

You also will learn about how marriages are established in different societies and about the forms that the family created by marriage has in different societies.

Assignment PDF eBook: 
Chapter 10: Marriage, Family, and Household
Download #10 Marriage & Family Assignment PDF eBook
53 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Chapter 10: Marriage, Family, and Household Assignment

Question: According to data presented by Ford and Beach and in the Cultural Diversity Data Base, about what percentage of societies restrict marriage to monogamy?


about 15 percent

about 25 percent

about 33 percent

about 50 percent

Question: Virilocality (patrilocality) is LEAST likely to be found in societies where:


solidarity of the male group is very important.

women play a predominant role in food production.

hunting is primarily a male activity.

internal warfare is common.

Question: Which of the following is true of exogamy rules?


They do not coexist with incest taboos.

They coexist with endogamy rules.

They apply to a broader range of persons than do incest taboos.

They do not coexist with marriage preference rules.

Question: Which of the following is true of the incest taboo?


It always forbids marriage between cousins.

It typically forbids sexual intercourse at least between parents and their children and between brothers and sisters.

It always applies to all members of society.

It applies to a broader range of persons than does a rule of exogamy.

Question: According to Ford and Beach, about what percentage of societies prefer polygynous marriage?


about 20 percent

about 50 percent

about 67 percent

about 84 percent

Question: Which of the following is NOT true of Sudanese Nuer ghost marriage?


It ensures a continuation of the family line of a male who dies without children.

It is an obligation of a dead male’s close male relatives.

It enlarges the family of the man who marries in behalf of a dead relative.

It creates anew the very circumstances which require ghost marriage.

Question: Which of the following is NOT a traditional function of marriage?


minimizing sexual competition

regulating inheritance rights

encouraging self-sufficiency

perpetuating a kinship group

Question: Which of the following is most closely associated with the need to minimize the growth of families?





ambilocal residence

Question: cousins whose common parents are either two brothers or two sisters



serial monogamy



group marriage

atypical marriage

symbolic marriages

common-law marriages


pathic marriages



incest taboo

exogamy rules

endogamy rules

cross cousins

parallel cousins




extended families



Question: A general definition of marriage need NOT include reference to which of the following?


bride price

economic rights and responsibilities

sexual rights and responsibilities

establishment of inheritance rights for potential descendants

Question: The dowry is most likely to be found in societies where:


women are important sources of income for families.

goods are inherited matrilineally.

women are economically nonproductive.

women are economically independent.

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Source:  Prof. Richley Crapo, Cultural Anthropology. (Utah State University), (Accessed 28 Mar, 2014). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
Yacoub Jayoghli
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Dewey Compton
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