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Chapter 0: Introduction to sociology 2e

Preface Read Online

About openstax

OpenStax is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of modern college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations.

About this book

Welcome to Introduction to Sociology 2e , an OpenStax resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in sociology. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions.

To broaden access and encourage community curation, Introduction to Sociology 2e is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at

To the student

This book is written for you and is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous sociologists. In today’s global socially networked world, the topic of sociology is more relevant than ever before. We hope that through this book, you will learn how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world. In this book, you will find applications of sociology concepts that are relevant, current, and balanced.

To the instructor

This text is intended for a one-semester introductory course. Since current events influence our social perspectives and the field of sociology in general, OpenStax encourages instructors to keep this book fresh by sending in your up-to-date examples to so that students and instructors around the country can relate and engage in fruitful discussions.

General approach

Introduction to Sociology 2e adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences.

Changes to the second edition

Part of the mission of the second edition update was to ensure the research, examples and concepts used in this textbook are current and relevant to today’s student. To this end, we have rewritten the introduction of each chapter to reflect the latest developments in sociology, history and global culture. In addition to new graphs and images, the reader of the second edition will find new feature boxes on a diverse array of topics, which has been one of the goals of the update—bringing the world into greater focus through case studies on global culture.

In this assignment you will review the most common changes in status that people pass through during their lifetimes.

You will learn how rites of passage aid people through the life cycle.

You will learn about the diversity of ways in which pregnancy is understood and childbirth occurs.

You will come to understand the reasons for cultural differences in courtship, marriage, parenthood, divorce, and old age.

You will also learn about the diverse ways in which social stability is maintained when individual members die.

Assignment PDF eBook: 
Chapter 9: Cultural Anthropology Life Cycle
Download #9 The Life Cycle Assignment PDF eBook
46 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Chapter 9: Cultural Anthropology Life Cycle Assignment

Question: According to Brown, female puberty rituals are common where:


women are politically dominant.

married couples establish their residence near the wife’s relatives.

women engage in heavy labor.

women’s associations cooperate in work activities.

Question: According to research by Cohen, puberty rituals are LEAST common in which of the following societies?


Those with extended families.

Those with nuclear families.

Those in which children have to be trained to play an interdependent, cooperative role with other family members.

Those with lineages or clans.

Question: What best defines the naming ceremony in cultures throughout the world?


purification of the child by symbolic washing


symbolic induction into human society

ritual socialization of the infant

Question: the process by which one subjectively prepares for impending biological death


life cycle

rite of passage

pregnancy rituals



naming ceremony

puberty ritual



sleep crawling



biological death

psychological death

social death

funeral ritual

Question: Restrictiveness regarding sexual experimentation before adulthood is likely where:


control of property is unimportant.

male solidarity is economically or politically important.

class distinctions or differences in wealth are unimportant.

parents have little interest in the future marriage plans of their children.

Question: High social rank is LEAST likely to be associated with old age where:


the married couple are economically independent from other relatives.

post-marital residence rules require a couple to live near one spouse’s parents.

older people live with related married couples

descent is traced through only one of the parents rather than through both. 11. Which of the following is NOT true of funeral rituals?

They encourage the survivors to adjust to the absence of the deceased.

They provide a setting in which issues of property rights are settled.

They pass on the statuses of the deceased to new persons.

They usually have little emphasis on religious ritual symbolism.

Question: Which of the following best summarizes the views of Leach about the pregnancy beliefs of the Tully River people?


They were truly unaware that sex causes pregnancy.

They were straightforward descriptions of what they observed.

Their comprehension of conception has no parallels in Western cultures.

They were a way of emphasizing the important social bonds in their society.

Question: Divorce is most likely where:


bride price is customary.

dowry is customary.

it is customary for the couple to live in an extended family.

income is unrelated to kinship ties and neolocal residence is practiced.

Question: Rites of passage are typically practiced in the cultures of the world on which of the following occasions?


during major social upheaval

in preparation for war

during changes in social status that are experienced by all members of society

during times of particular importance to an individual

Question: Which of the following is NOT a social function that rites of passage play?


They help maintain stability and order in society.

They give individuals the opportunity to create new roles for themselves that are not already available in their society.

They are symbolic dramatizations during crisis events in an individual’s life.

They help the individual recognize the importance of adopting new habits in his or her new social role.

Question: Which of the following defines life cycle?


a person’s daily activities

the yearly cycle of events that a person experiences

the social problems that recur in any society

the changes in social status that a member of society passes through during his or her lifetime

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Source:  Prof. Richley Crapo, Cultural Anthropology. (Utah State University), (Accessed 28 Mar, 2014). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
Donyea Sweets
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Yasser Ibrahim
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