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Chapter 0: Introduction to sociology 2e

Preface Read Online

About openstax

OpenStax is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of modern college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations.

About this book

Welcome to Introduction to Sociology 2e , an OpenStax resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in sociology. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions.

To broaden access and encourage community curation, Introduction to Sociology 2e is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at

To the student

This book is written for you and is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous sociologists. In today’s global socially networked world, the topic of sociology is more relevant than ever before. We hope that through this book, you will learn how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world. In this book, you will find applications of sociology concepts that are relevant, current, and balanced.

To the instructor

This text is intended for a one-semester introductory course. Since current events influence our social perspectives and the field of sociology in general, OpenStax encourages instructors to keep this book fresh by sending in your up-to-date examples to so that students and instructors around the country can relate and engage in fruitful discussions.

General approach

Introduction to Sociology 2e adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences.

Changes to the second edition

Part of the mission of the second edition update was to ensure the research, examples and concepts used in this textbook are current and relevant to today’s student. To this end, we have rewritten the introduction of each chapter to reflect the latest developments in sociology, history and global culture. In addition to new graphs and images, the reader of the second edition will find new feature boxes on a diverse array of topics, which has been one of the goals of the update—bringing the world into greater focus through case studies on global culture.

In this assignment you will learn the principles that describe cultural change.

You will become acquainted with the four major stages of cultural evolution, archaeological evidence for the evolution of cultures, and the laws that govern cultural evolution.

Assignment PDF eBook: 
Chapter 7: Anthropology Aesthetics and Culture
Download #7 Aesthetics & Culture Assignment PDF eBook
53 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Chapter 7: Anthropology Aesthetics and Culture Assignment

Question: a cultural expression of feeling and meaning in a form that evokes an aesthetic experience in the participant or observer



aesthetic locus

aesthetic experience

expressive culture












verbal arts








Question: The ability to appreciate beauty is:


a biologically based capacity.

culturally learned.

a capacity not all individuals have.

absent in some cultures.

Question: In non-literate societies, art is:


not always a specialized sphere of life.

the domain of specialists.

clearly distinguished and set apart from utilitarian life.

restricted to song and dance.

Question: According to Barbara Ayres tonal ranges in adult music are:


the same in all cultures.

larger where there is stress in childhood.

smaller where there is stress in childhood.

highly variable, but cross-culturally unpredictable.

Question: According to Clyde Kluckhohn, common themes in myths:


are limited to flood motifs.

do not include stories about incest.

are highly idiosyncratic and variable from culture to culture.

deal with anxiety-related matters.

Question: According to Roberts and Sutton-Smith, games of strategy are preferred tin societies where:


obedience training is emphasized in childhood.

independence training is emphasized in childhood.

creativity training is emphasized in childhood.

play is emphasized as fun.

Question: Aesthetic locus is:


the technical term for art and artistic standards.

the technical term for the objects to which a society devotes particular artistic emphasis.

any place such as a theater or dance ground where artistic performances occur.

any feature of the natural environment that people regard as particularly beautiful.

Question: Which of the following is NOT a necessary characteristic of art?


It is the product of an individual artist.

It conveys symbolic messages.

It uses both universal signs and culturally specific symbols.

It expresses feelings.

Question: In Hindu aesthetics, the central feature of good art is:


its ability to convey a subtle intellectual concept.

its ability to convey a moral message.

its ability to give sensuous pleasure that is equated with oneness with the divine.

its ability to support religious beliefs.

Question: Which of the following is not a social function of art?


communicating a person’s social status.

giving pleasure to an individuals.

teaching moral and ethical principles.

maintaining harmony between groups.

Question: Which of the following is NOT true of play?


It is common among mammals.

It is a learned ability.

It is culturally patterned.

It is intrinsically pleasurable.

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Source:  Prof. Richley Crapo, Cultural Anthropology. (Utah State University), (Accessed 28 Mar, 2014). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
Edgar Delgado
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Eric Crawford
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