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Dynamic, learner-centered art

Our unique approach to visuals is designed to emphasize only the components most important in any given illustration. The art style is particularly aimed at focusing student learning through a powerful blend of traditional depictions and instructional innovations.

Much of the art in this book consists of black line illustrations. The strongest line is used to highlight the most important structures, and shading is used to show dimension and shape. Color is used sparingly to highlight and clarify the primary anatomical or functional point of the illustration. This technique is intended to draw students’ attention to the critical learning point in the illustration, without distraction from excessive gradients, shadows, and highlights. Full color is used when the structure or process requires it (for example, muscle diagrams and cardiovascular system illustrations).

The pharynx

A color illustration of the pharynx.
By highlighting the most important portions of the illustration, the artwork helps students focus on the most important points, without overwhelming them.

Micrographs

Micrograph magnifications have been calculated based on the objective provided with the image. If a micrograph was recorded at 40×, and the image was magnified an additional 2×, we calculated the final magnification of the micrograph to be 80×.

Please note that, when viewing the textbook electronically, the micrograph magnification provided in the text does not take into account the size and magnification of the screen on your electronic device. There may be some variation.

Sebaceous glands

A color illustration of the pharynx.
These glands secrete oils that lubricate and protect the skin. LM × 400. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Learning resources

The following resources are (or will be) available in addition to main text:

  • PowerPoint slides: For each chapter, the illustrations are presented, one per slide, with their respective captions.
  • Pronunciation guide: A subset of the text’s key terms are presented with easy-to-follow phonetic transcriptions. For example, blastocyst is rendered as “blas'to-sist”

About our team

Senior contributing authors

J. Gordon Betts Tyler Junior College
Peter Desaix University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Eddie Johnson Central Oregon Community College
Jody E. Johnson Arapahoe Community College
Oksana Korol Aims Community College
Dean Kruse Portland Community College
Brandon Poe Springfield Technical Community College
James A. Wise Hampton University
Mark Womble Youngstown State University
Kelly A. Young California State University, Long Beach

Advisor

Robin J. Heyden

Contributing authors

Kim Aaronson Aquarius Institute; Triton College
Lopamudra Agarwal Augusta Technical College
Gary Allen Dalhousie University
Robert Allison McLennan Community College
Heather Armbruster Southern Union State Community College
Timothy Ballard University of North Carolina Wilmington
Matthew Barlow Eastern New Mexico University
William Blaker Furman University
Julie Bowers East Tennessee State University
Emily Bradshaw Florida Southern College
Nishi Bryska University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Susan Caley Opsal Illinois Valley Community College
Boyd Campbell Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and Health Sciences
Ann Caplea Walsh University
Marnie Chapman University of Alaska, Sitka
Barbara Christie-Pope Cornell College
Kenneth Crane Texarkana College
Maurice Culver Florida State College at Jacksonville
Heather Cushman Tacoma Community College
Noelle Cutter Molloy College
Lynnette Danzl-Tauer Rock Valley College
Jane Davis Aurora University
AnnMarie DelliPizzi Dominican College
Susan Dentel Washtenaw Community College
Pamela Dobbins Shelton State Community College
Patty Dolan Pacific Lutheran University
Sondra Dubowsky McLennan Community College
Peter Dukehart Three Rivers Community College
Ellen DuPré Central College
Elizabeth DuPriest Warner Pacific College
Pam Elf University of Minnesota
Sharon Ellerton Queensborough Community College
Carla Endres Utah State University - College of Eastern Utah: San Juan Campus
Myriam Feldman Lake Washington Institute of Technology; Cascadia Community College
Greg Fitch Avila University
Lynn Gargan Tarant County College
Michael Giangrande Oakland Community College
Chaya Gopalan St. Louis College of Pharmacy
Victor Greco Chattahoochee Technical College
Susanna Heinze Skagit Valley College
Ann Henninger Wartburg College
Dale Horeth Tidewater Community College
Michael Hortsch University of Michigan
Rosemary Hubbard Marymount University
Mark Hubley Prince George's Community College
Branko Jablanovic College of Lake County
Norman Johnson University of Massachusetts Amherst
Mark Jonasson North Arkansas College
Jeff Keyte College of Saint Mary
William Kleinelp Middlesex County College
Leigh Kleinert Grand Rapids Community College
Brenda Leady University of Toledo
John Lepri University of North Carolina, Greensboro
Sarah Leupen University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Lihua Liang Johns Hopkins University
Robert Mallet University of North Texas Health Science Center
Bruce Maring Daytona State College
Elisabeth Martin College of Lake County
Natalie Maxwell Carl Albert State College, Sallisaw
Julie May William Carey University
Debra McLaughlin University of Maryland University College
Nicholas Mitchell St. Bonaventure University
Shobhana Natarajan Brookhaven College
Phillip Nicotera St. Petersburg College
Mary Jane Niles University of San Francisco
Ikemefuna Nwosu Parkland College; Lake Land College
Betsy Ott Tyler Junior College
Ivan Paul John Wood Community College
Aaron Payette College of Southern Nevada
Scott Payne Kentucky Wesleyan College
Cameron Perkins South Georgia College
David Pfeiffer University of Alaska, Anchorage
Thomas Pilat Illinois Central College
Eileen Preston Tarrant County College
Mike Pyle Olivet Nazarene University
Robert Rawding Gannon University
Jason Schreer State University of New York at Potsdam
Laird Sheldahl Mt. Hood Community College
Brian Shmaefsky Lone Star College System
Douglas Sizemore Bevill State Community College
Susan Spencer Mount Hood Community College
Cynthia Standley University of Arizona
Robert Sullivan Marist College
Eric Sun Middle Georgia State College
Tom Swenson Ithaca College
Kathleen Tallman Azusa Pacific University
Rohinton Tarapore University of Pennsylvania
Elizabeth Tattersall Western Nevada College
Mark Thomas University of Northern Colorado
Janis Thompson Lorain County Community College
Rita Thrasher Pensacola State College
David Van Wylen St. Olaf College
Lynn Wandrey Mott Community College
Margaret Weck St. Louis College of Pharmacy
Kathleen Weiss George Fox University
Neil Westergaard Williston State College
David Wortham West Georgia Technical College
Umesh Yadav University of Texas Medical Branch
Tony Yates Oklahoma Baptist University
Justin York Glendale Community College
Cheri Zao North Idaho College
Elena Zoubina Bridgewater State University; Massasoit Community College
Shobhana Natarajan Alcon Laboratories, Inc.

Special thanks

OpenStax wishes to thank the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School for the use of their extensive micrograph collection. Many of the UM micrographs that appear in Anatomy and Physiology are interactive WebScopes, which students can explore by zooming in and out.

We also wish to thank the Open Learning Initiative at Carnegie Mellon University, with whom we shared and exchanged resources during the development of Anatomy and Physiology .

Questions & Answers

Rheumatoid arthritis affects
Jessica Reply
what is oedema
Nantumbwe Reply
i want abook about physiology including the vitamins
Belal
fluid retention in the body. (also spelt as edema) e.g. fluid retention in the lungs is called Pulmonary Edema). It can also happen as a result of Injury manifested as swelling.
Arif
can you give me an example of a tissue composed of few related types of cells
Theresa Reply
What is LMx1600
Mae Reply
the skeletal system includes all of the bones
All Reply
what is the bone not contain red bone marrow in medulla
Duha Reply
To know the part of human body
Sarah Reply
Anatomy refers to as structure of human body
Sarah
so is the macroscopic and microscopic the types of anatomy
Gloria Reply
is microscopic and macroscopic a type of anatomy
Gloria
yes
Maxine
yes
Yabsra
yes
Sarah
Please can someone explain three glands in endocrine system?
josh
.
Robin
can someone explain disease and the category
gege
type 2 is controled by diet
Chloe Reply
Diet and life style
Paias
Diet how? maybe eating food containing less sugar?
BTS
we must eat protein food to check our diet
Sarah
type 2 diabetes cannot be controlled by insulin so therefore your diet should be well balanced especially you shouldn't eat foods with high sugar level or stopping sugar at all so that the sugar content needed by your body will be provided by the balanced diet taken
Enada
what is hypotension
regina Reply
hypotension is when the blood pressure is less than 60/50
Mursal
hypo means low so it implies low blood pressure
Isaac
ok
Mursal
what is mild DKA
Mursal
mild diabetic ketoacidosis is when there is high level of sugar in the blood and the ketone bodies build up in the body ,is a type 1 which can lead to type 2
Isaac
what is the normal range for blood pressure?
BTS
120 over 80
Danielle
low blood pressure; opposite of high blood pressure which is hypertension
Regina
what if your a type 2 diabetic and you have no way to get meds due to no insurance what is some good over the counter medications to take?
Ashley
type 2 diabets is controlled by diet not meds.type 1 is contolled by insulin.
Chloe
type 1 diabets cant be controlled type 2 can be controlled.type 1 is worse than type 2 diabets.
Chloe
type 2 is purely a lifestyle disease, eat healthy, fresh, natural unprocessed real foods.
Danielle
sometime , we already eat diabetic diet than the results of blood sugar level not turn good , what is the reason ?
Muhammad
What is a "diabetic diet" though? Be specific. Juvenile diabetes and/or Type 1 diabetes is something that one can be born with, this needs medical diagnosis and intervention.
Danielle
what i mean by diabetic diet is we take fiber-rich food like vegetables,nut and also fish.
Muhammad
ok, no cause a doctor told me I needed metformin and my suger won't go under 300
Ashley
what is the difference between plasma and serum
Gloria Reply
Plasma contains fibrinogen while serum doesn't
Kateregga
plasma ----- fibrinogen = serum
Sneha
serum is blood plasma without fibrinogen or other clotting factors While blood plasma contains dissolved protein like fibrinogen,globulin, and albumin), glucose, clotting factors,mineral ions like Na2+,Cl-1,hormones and carbon dioxide
Prince
In what time stomach empty it's content in to doudemun? what is chyme?
Sneha Reply
write the chemical and mechanical digestion which occurs in stomach?
Sneha
Does absorption take place in stomach? what are absorption in the stomach by which cell?
Sneha
Chemical digestion---Mixtures of the food with the gastric acid Mechanical digestion--- churning of the food in the stomach making it become more involved into chyme
Mercy
absorption takes place in the small intestine because of the presence of the villi
Enada
name the muscles supplied redina nerve
Appu Reply
mechanism of hormone releasing by gland
said Reply
why is muscle tissue not considered to be a type of connective tissue?
Ezel Reply
A Skeletal muscles consist of numerous muscles cells called Muscle Fibers . Three layers of connective tissues surrounded these fibers to make the muscles tissues
Manisha
that's wny connective tissues is not considered as muscles fibers
Manisha
there are 4 types of tissues : epithelial, connective tissue, nervous tissue and muscle tissue, each one has its own properties. The main function of connective tissue is nutrition, it supplies nutrientes to epithelial tissues that are responsible for protection.
Ariete
Muscle tissue has properties that allow movement, the function here is movement and not nutrition like connective tissue.
Ariete
In what time stomach empty it's content in to doudemun?
Sneha
write the chemical and mechanical digestion which occurs in stomach?
Sneha
Does absorption take place in stomach? what are absorption in the stomach by which cell?
Sneha
Does absorption take place in stomach? what are the absorption in the stomach by which cell?
Sneha
mechanism of hormone controlling releasing by gland
said
please can someone explain renin angiotensin aldosteron system for me
okolie

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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