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The vagina is home to a normal population of microorganisms that help to protect against infection by pathogenic bacteria, yeast, or other organisms that can enter the vagina. In a healthy woman, the most predominant type of vaginal bacteria is from the genus Lactobacillus . This family of beneficial bacterial flora secretes lactic acid, and thus protects the vagina by maintaining an acidic pH (below 4.5). Potential pathogens are less likely to survive in these acidic conditions. Lactic acid, in combination with other vaginal secretions, makes the vagina a self-cleansing organ. However, douching—or washing out the vagina with fluid—can disrupt the normal balance of healthy microorganisms, and actually increase a woman’s risk for infections and irritation. Indeed, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that women do not douche, and that they allow the vagina to maintain its normal healthy population of protective microbial flora.

Ovaries

The ovaries    are the female gonads (see [link] ). Paired ovals, they are each about 2 to 3 cm in length, about the size of an almond. The ovaries are located within the pelvic cavity, and are supported by the mesovarium, an extension of the peritoneum that connects the ovaries to the broad ligament    . Extending from the mesovarium itself is the suspensory ligament that contains the ovarian blood and lymph vessels. Finally, the ovary itself is attached to the uterus via the ovarian ligament.

The ovary comprises an outer covering of cuboidal epithelium called the ovarian surface epithelium that is superficial to a dense connective tissue covering called the tunica albuginea. Beneath the tunica albuginea is the cortex, or outer portion, of the organ. The cortex is composed of a tissue framework called the ovarian stroma that forms the bulk of the adult ovary. Oocytes develop within the outer layer of this stroma, each surrounded by supporting cells. This grouping of an oocyte and its supporting cells is called a follicle    . The growth and development of ovarian follicles will be described shortly. Beneath the cortex lies the inner ovarian medulla, the site of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and the nerves of the ovary. You will learn more about the overall anatomy of the female reproductive system at the end of this section.

The ovarian cycle

The ovarian cycle    is a set of predictable changes in a female’s oocytes and ovarian follicles. During a woman’s reproductive years, it is a roughly 28-day cycle that can be correlated with, but is not the same as, the menstrual cycle (discussed shortly). The cycle includes two interrelated processes: oogenesis (the production of female gametes) and folliculogenesis (the growth and development of ovarian follicles).

Oogenesis

Gametogenesis in females is called oogenesis    . The process begins with the ovarian stem cells, or oogonia    ( [link] ). Oogonia are formed during fetal development, and divide via mitosis, much like spermatogonia in the testis. Unlike spermatogonia, however, oogonia form primary oocytes in the fetal ovary prior to birth. These primary oocytes are then arrested in this stage of meiosis I, only to resume it years later, beginning at puberty and continuing until the woman is near menopause (the cessation of a woman’s reproductive functions). The number of primary oocytes present in the ovaries declines from one to two million in an infant, to approximately 400,000 at puberty, to zero by the end of menopause.

Questions & Answers

explain how hormonal control aids in homeostasis regarding fluids and electrolytes, internal organs, clinical application, edema electrolyte imbalance?
Hensheal Reply
someone to help me explain those
Hensheal
list down all the hormones secreted by adrenal gland
Odong Reply
The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction.
Javid Reply
how we can calculate the cardiac output
khater
and how do we calculate the strock valume
khater
stroke volume is not all the blood contained in the left ventricle; normally, only about two-thirds of the blood in the ventricle is expelled with each beat.
Javid
Cardiac output 5.5 l S. V 68.75 ml H. R 80bpm
Javid
If we consider SV 70, end systolic vol is about 15% of total(approx always) out of a total of 80-85 ml only 70ml is pumped per systole
Kartik
what is macrophages?and its function
Sajjad Reply
macrophages they are white blood cells that engulf dead cells in the body
patience
what is power stroke?
muravha
no idea
patience
what is the stroke volume of heart?
up
If an autoimmune disorder targets the alpha cells, production of which hormone would be directly affected?
Samantha Reply
what is a muscle?
Gideon Reply
A band or bundle of fibrous tissue in a human or animal body that has the ability to contract, producing movement in or maintaining the position of parts of the body
Mody
ok
Gideon
what's endolphthamities and panophthalmities?
Gideon
fluid around the brain
louise Reply
what ?
Asif
cerebro spinal fluid
Bhupender
The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by a clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This fluid is produced and stored in cavities in the brain called ventricles. It circulatesaround the brain, moving from ventricle to ventricle. ... Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is too much CSF
Archie
what is hydrocphalus
aminul Reply
Google krlena na madarchod yha maa chudwa rha ha sabko notification bhjke
Bhupender
when cerebrospinal fluid produce în the brain, i.e. brain ventricles, is to abundent in the brain and is not trăind out of the brain. as a consequence this lichid pute mechanical pressure oñ the brain and it pushes the cerebrum tissue. as a consequence this pressure on the neuronscan cause neurologi
Centerkinet
cal disfunctions, for example clinical headache
Centerkinet
. It is posible to drainout the fluid through a device dalles shunt,as i remember.
Centerkinet
but where are also home medicinsfor decreasing the production of cerebrospin.fluid etc
Centerkinet
there are some medicines that can decrease the production of csf
Centerkinet
a neurologist advice is needed
Centerkinet
i wrote some medicines NOT home medicines. it is a serious condition and specialized medical advice is needed. of course also general medical knowledge may be helpful, but not enough, a specialist is neede
Centerkinet
if anyone help me in physiology
Radika Reply
i am BSN student of first year which book is best for physiology
Radika
i am BSN student of first year which book is best for physiology
Radika
ross and wilson anotomy and physiology
Sajjad
it's 1 book for anotomy and physiology it's best for bs nursing
Sajjad
yes Ross and wilson physiology is better for study
Nasir
I'm also the student of bs nursing
Sajjad
I study guiton and hall &ganong
Gentle
I'm also midwif help me be the best book for midwif
nimco
what ia the function of indocrine system
sheraz
salam all friend
sheraz
help me with this question; explain at least five emergency acute pain found in fundamental emergency medicine
Christon
Fascial compartment of forearm
Hidayatullah
what's a tissue?
Mwape Reply
a group of cells with the same function
Dee
tissue is a group of cells that perform the same functions.
Rashid
explain a bit about a tissue
Mwape
A tissue is made up of cells that are similar in shape and perform the same function, for instance brain cells form up a brain tissue. Whereas a group of tissues that perform the same function form an organ... so in this case the brain which is the organ is formed as a result of brain tissues.
Isaac
what is gross anatomy
Joseph
the branch of anatomy that deals with the structure of organs and tissues that are visible to the naked eye.
Archie
1.To know how the structures functions. 2.To easily identify the micro structures and the macro structures. 3.To be able to explain that anatomy is the study of the structures and physiology is the study of how the structures functions
Abban Reply
Describe the two classes of hormones (3 with subclasses) and how they affect their target cells.
Shalaeha Reply
what is control centre
Gohil Reply
Angie The larger air passage of the lung is
Angie Reply
guys help to make me understand the structure of the skin
Olokojo Reply
the skin has three layers epidermis,dermis,and subcutaneous tissue
Antony
guys what is esrf
Antony
End Stage of Renal Failure
sheraz
what's the meaning of OPD
Sintung
Out Patient Department
Shahab
the skin has the assesory structures.that is, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, hairs, nails,blood vessels and lymph vessels.
Mutebe
yh
Gideon

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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