<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Dynamic, learner-centered art

Our unique approach to visuals is designed to emphasize only the components most important in any given illustration. The art style is particularly aimed at focusing student learning through a powerful blend of traditional depictions and instructional innovations.

Much of the art in this book consists of black line illustrations. The strongest line is used to highlight the most important structures, and shading is used to show dimension and shape. Color is used sparingly to highlight and clarify the primary anatomical or functional point of the illustration. This technique is intended to draw students’ attention to the critical learning point in the illustration, without distraction from excessive gradients, shadows, and highlights. Full color is used when the structure or process requires it (for example, muscle diagrams and cardiovascular system illustrations).

The pharynx

A color illustration of the pharynx.
By highlighting the most important portions of the illustration, the artwork helps students focus on the most important points, without overwhelming them.


Micrograph magnifications have been calculated based on the objective provided with the image. If a micrograph was recorded at 40×, and the image was magnified an additional 2×, we calculated the final magnification of the micrograph to be 80×.

Please note that, when viewing the textbook electronically, the micrograph magnification provided in the text does not take into account the size and magnification of the screen on your electronic device. There may be some variation.

Sebaceous glands

A color illustration of the pharynx.
These glands secrete oils that lubricate and protect the skin. LM × 400. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Learning resources

The following resources are (or will be) available in addition to main text:

  • PowerPoint slides: For each chapter, the illustrations are presented, one per slide, with their respective captions.
  • Pronunciation guide: A subset of the text’s key terms are presented with easy-to-follow phonetic transcriptions. For example, blastocyst is rendered as “blas'to-sist”

About our team

Senior contributing authors

J. Gordon Betts Tyler Junior College
Peter Desaix University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Eddie Johnson Central Oregon Community College
Jody E. Johnson Arapahoe Community College
Oksana Korol Aims Community College
Dean Kruse Portland Community College
Brandon Poe Springfield Technical Community College
James A. Wise Hampton University
Mark Womble Youngstown State University
Kelly A. Young California State University, Long Beach


Robin J. Heyden

Contributing authors

Kim Aaronson Aquarius Institute; Triton College
Lopamudra Agarwal Augusta Technical College
Gary Allen Dalhousie University
Robert Allison McLennan Community College
Heather Armbruster Southern Union State Community College
Timothy Ballard University of North Carolina Wilmington
Matthew Barlow Eastern New Mexico University
William Blaker Furman University
Julie Bowers East Tennessee State University
Emily Bradshaw Florida Southern College
Nishi Bryska University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Susan Caley Opsal Illinois Valley Community College
Boyd Campbell Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and Health Sciences
Ann Caplea Walsh University
Marnie Chapman University of Alaska, Sitka
Barbara Christie-Pope Cornell College
Kenneth Crane Texarkana College
Maurice Culver Florida State College at Jacksonville
Heather Cushman Tacoma Community College
Noelle Cutter Molloy College
Lynnette Danzl-Tauer Rock Valley College
Jane Davis Aurora University
AnnMarie DelliPizzi Dominican College
Susan Dentel Washtenaw Community College
Pamela Dobbins Shelton State Community College
Patty Dolan Pacific Lutheran University
Sondra Dubowsky McLennan Community College
Peter Dukehart Three Rivers Community College
Ellen DuPré Central College
Elizabeth DuPriest Warner Pacific College
Pam Elf University of Minnesota
Sharon Ellerton Queensborough Community College
Carla Endres Utah State University - College of Eastern Utah: San Juan Campus
Myriam Feldman Lake Washington Institute of Technology; Cascadia Community College
Greg Fitch Avila University
Lynn Gargan Tarant County College
Michael Giangrande Oakland Community College
Chaya Gopalan St. Louis College of Pharmacy
Victor Greco Chattahoochee Technical College
Susanna Heinze Skagit Valley College
Ann Henninger Wartburg College
Dale Horeth Tidewater Community College
Michael Hortsch University of Michigan
Rosemary Hubbard Marymount University
Mark Hubley Prince George's Community College
Branko Jablanovic College of Lake County
Norman Johnson University of Massachusetts Amherst
Mark Jonasson North Arkansas College
Jeff Keyte College of Saint Mary
William Kleinelp Middlesex County College
Leigh Kleinert Grand Rapids Community College
Brenda Leady University of Toledo
John Lepri University of North Carolina, Greensboro
Sarah Leupen University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Lihua Liang Johns Hopkins University
Robert Mallet University of North Texas Health Science Center
Bruce Maring Daytona State College
Elisabeth Martin College of Lake County
Natalie Maxwell Carl Albert State College, Sallisaw
Julie May William Carey University
Debra McLaughlin University of Maryland University College
Nicholas Mitchell St. Bonaventure University
Shobhana Natarajan Brookhaven College
Phillip Nicotera St. Petersburg College
Mary Jane Niles University of San Francisco
Ikemefuna Nwosu Parkland College; Lake Land College
Betsy Ott Tyler Junior College
Ivan Paul John Wood Community College
Aaron Payette College of Southern Nevada
Scott Payne Kentucky Wesleyan College
Cameron Perkins South Georgia College
David Pfeiffer University of Alaska, Anchorage
Thomas Pilat Illinois Central College
Eileen Preston Tarrant County College
Mike Pyle Olivet Nazarene University
Robert Rawding Gannon University
Jason Schreer State University of New York at Potsdam
Laird Sheldahl Mt. Hood Community College
Brian Shmaefsky Lone Star College System
Douglas Sizemore Bevill State Community College
Susan Spencer Mount Hood Community College
Cynthia Standley University of Arizona
Robert Sullivan Marist College
Eric Sun Middle Georgia State College
Tom Swenson Ithaca College
Kathleen Tallman Azusa Pacific University
Rohinton Tarapore University of Pennsylvania
Elizabeth Tattersall Western Nevada College
Mark Thomas University of Northern Colorado
Janis Thompson Lorain County Community College
Rita Thrasher Pensacola State College
David Van Wylen St. Olaf College
Lynn Wandrey Mott Community College
Margaret Weck St. Louis College of Pharmacy
Kathleen Weiss George Fox University
Neil Westergaard Williston State College
David Wortham West Georgia Technical College
Umesh Yadav University of Texas Medical Branch
Tony Yates Oklahoma Baptist University
Justin York Glendale Community College
Cheri Zao North Idaho College
Elena Zoubina Bridgewater State University; Massasoit Community College
Shobhana Natarajan Alcon Laboratories, Inc.

Special thanks

OpenStax wishes to thank the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School for the use of their extensive micrograph collection. Many of the UM micrographs that appear in Anatomy and Physiology are interactive WebScopes, which students can explore by zooming in and out.

We also wish to thank the Open Learning Initiative at Carnegie Mellon University, with whom we shared and exchanged resources during the development of Anatomy and Physiology .

Questions & Answers

where the bone growth occur in endochondral ossification
zhimei Reply
what is the reason after birth the baby didn't cry
Karthik Reply
because the lung is not yet functioning properly probably due to pulmonary disorder
because ductus arteriosus should have been closing off by that time and expansion of the lungs should make the baby to cry under normal physiological condition
yes that is true the lung is not yet functioning
what is the difference between the spleen and the kidney
@Famuyiwa, the spleen and kidneys are part of two different organ systems. The spleen is a lymphoid organ that cleans blood from pathogens and also breaks down old RBCs.
The kidneys are part of the urinary system. It has several functions such as: filtration of blood from excessive ions and nitrogenous wastes (urea, uric acid, ammonium, creatinine), pH balance of blood, water concentration, regulation of blood pressure, and synthesis of hormones like renin and vit D
what is a cell cycle
GINA Reply
The cell cycle is essentially the life cycle of a cell. In eukaryotic cells, The cell cycle consists of the interphase and mitosis(cellular division).
What is blood
Clare Reply
Blood is composed of plasma and formed elements. Blood plasma is considered extracellular fluid and makes up 55% of blood volume. It contains about 90% water. It also contains nutrients, hormones, gases, ions, proteins, and other molecules. If you have an infection, it might also contain pathogens.
The formed elements are RBCs (45% of blood volume), WBCs and plalets (less than 1% of blood volume) A cool fact is that blood is considered a type of connective tissue since the formed elements of blood comes from mesenchyme stem cells origin.
differences between channel protein and carrier protein in the plasma membrane?
Kumih Reply
does the parietal pleura attached itself to the ribs
The main difference is that solutes simply pass through a protein channel, while solutes bind to protein carriers causing a conformational change in the carrier protein and then allows the solute to pass by.
Besides that, both transporters have the same function which is to allow specific solutes in and out of the cell.
The parietal pleura does come in contact with the ribs.
what structure holds the vertebral column in place?
Holly Reply
the ligarmentum flavium
round cushion pads that sit on the between the vertebrae. The intervertebral disc is made up of strong tissue
Alimentary canal tissue type
Noob Reply
it consists the oesophagus ,stomach small intestine, large intestine
alimentary canal is a type of tissue that consists of mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, rectum, and anus
The alimentary canal consists of 4 tunics, and it has all the main tissue types in the body. 1st tunic: Mucosa (simple columnar epithelia) 2nd tunic: Submucosa (dense irregular conn. tissue) 3rd tunic: Muscularis externa (smooth muscle) 4th tunic: Serosa (simple squamous epithelia).
There is also nervous tissue that are present in the muscularis extrena tunic. In the rectum and anus, the mucosal layer contains non keratinized stratified squamous epithelia.
what is epithelial tissue
snr Reply
epithelial tissue is a line in the outer surface of an organism and blood vessels through out the body and inner surface cavities
Epithelial tissue is one of the main tissue types on the body. it's main function is to cover and line outer and inner surfaces of organs. For example your skin is epithelial tissue which lines your outer self. The lining of the mucosal layer in your gastrointestinal tract is epithelial tissue.
epithelial tissue is incredibly diverse in function though. It also synthesize and secrets certain products like saliva, hormones, sweat, sebum and mucus.
It also forms structures such as exocrine and endocrine glands, endothelial, and mesothelial membranes as well.
can someone please explain the process lymphatic system
There are many different types of epithelial tissue and different functions they perform.
@Famuyiwa, the lymphatic organ system contains lymphatic capillaries, vessels, lymph nodes, lymphoid organs and tissues. The lymphatic system is responsible for maintaing blood pressure, filter lymph (activate the immune system), leukopoeiesis, and break down old RBCs.
thanks alot
welcome, almost forgot, another important function of the lymphatic system is to transports fats inside chylomicrons to the liver and adipose tissue mainly.
This happens after absorption of fats in the enterocytes have occurred and are moved into the latest vessels that lead into lymphatic vessels.
What is anatomy
Arko Reply
Structures of anatomy
anatomy is the study of science that deals with how the parts of a body is being structured
anatomy is the study of organisms and the relationship of it's parts
tree diagram of the composition of the blood
Poonam Reply
please you said our external hair is dead n non sensational so we the ladies apply cream to it, does it have a negative effect or not?
Abigail Reply
epithelial tissue connective tissue muscle tissue nervous tissue
Eliham Reply
Is this a question.. or a statement!!?
Jesus love us!
thank you I needed that!!! praise the lord
praise God!
lol. it was joke. i am atheist xd
so what?
Jesus is the only living God.
one who find refuge in him will rest with him.
isnt this a page to ask for anatomy questions.. not bible study
Share Jesus without fear all around the world
and anywhere you want.
ok bible thumper. my ex a preachers daughter was a closet lesbian who f***ed me more times at church then we did hymns
y'all are the worst hypocrites in the entire world
that's what you say... but we are living for the our King Jesus not for the world.
your king will not save you
lady you need common sense not jesus
he's saves me everyday and I do have many testimonies
as long as you repent on sundays. y'all are free to sin the rest of the week. but are biggots towards gays and those with a different mindset.
don't look at anyone else. please clean yourself first
lady you are probably a troll
if you live according to the commandments in Bible, you get saved by Jesus as well
I'm not a troll
testimonies your kind will say y'all die in his name but dont know his words...
I'm sharing his word
how... amen thats really shows people god exists
every word in the Bible is in tip of our tongue
we live and die for him
i think the same. i am atheist because all religions were made for money and authority. they telling us fake stories and scary us.
you may have read the bible and may go to church but didnt deny being a biggot
Jesus do exist and I have experienced it mam
not everyone is for money, Daniel
again she wont deny shes a biggot
there are people who are fake in Christianity. I'm not saying there isn't. but there are people who just live for him because they experienced Jesus more in their lives. I will pray for y'all for him to touch you.
let him speak to you in Jesus name!
but mostly yes. they could do good things too but working in nonreligious organisations. i dont said everyone is bad.
I'm not getting any money for telling this you.
lady i have gone to church read the bible. and Quran both have truths but you as a whole as in the church are the worst Hippocrits
find churches that are small in congregation
even if they had good intentions they spread bad theories, for example: creationism.
all they do is pray
but wont do anything else
id love to meet you to see who im talking to from behind a screen who says Ill pray for someone who NEVER ASKED.
Quran does have truth because they copied it from the Bible. when was Bible written. Things which are happening now are from Bible. Think...when was Bible written? and things happening now from it... so are you saying there's no truth in it?
think? they are not the same
in Quran, it says they have to make other people Muslim or else they have to kill people for their God. is that correct?
there are less biggots again you dont deny that. and such nicer people with open arms
so you haven't read the Bible clearly.
read the New Testament and you will figure it out.
youll turn away a gay man and welcome a rapist
while Buddhists and islamics welcome the gays and turn away the phedos
so you are basically saying that people who worship Jesus are fake people right?
i bet you never read the quran ever
Christianity welcomes everyone, but Church have been taught people come in.
omg.... youll try to save rapist before allowing your own blood (child) to live in your homes who comes out gay. or not wanna be a Republican. or a gun holder
I haven't read it. But in its all hates
but they have to change from it.
ever person i met who is like you. has a conceal carry. owns a gun. goes to church is republican and doesnt like any races besides there own....
obviously after knowing his name, they clearly will get away from all the bad thinga
my point you believe the bible but wont educate yourself on other beliefs...
who said that?
now tell me if the other assumptions are wrong
which church or person said that to you?
well you wont deny it? so it has to be true.....
no church saud it. i came from a mostly white town with plenty of racists gun wearing biggots
they are completely wrong. You think Allah said anywhere in the Quran that "he's coming back soon
What's Gun used for? It's for yours or my protection from others right.
it's not like you have to kill innocent people.
if you or me kill innocent people what will happen?
you or me will go to hell only.
if someone try to come and fight with you or me. we will take the gun for our protection.
allah is always creating and coming back by new life....
you as a person has no right to say about the quran till you have read it...
most of the American people have Gun with them. they go to church, they call God, they worship, they do fellowship etc.. for Jesus
but again you dont deny your not a racist biggot
or welcome gays .....
religion doesn't mean racist.
or dont protect rapist... or were you abused and liked it
I like everyone.
rapist shouldn't be doing that. According to Bible it's sin
guns shouldnt be owned by those who are not right mentally or ment for harm. but again police use deadly force everyday
Why does Christian doesn't fight back when they struggle with others?
according to the bible we shouldnt wear mixed fabrics....
But why does Muslims does it?
we shouldnt lay with man
According to Bible gays are sin as well
man shouldnt lay with man excuse me
actually.. they dont
if you are married, it's okay to lay with a man. because in the Bible it says after marriage, they are one. not 2 anymore
but you wouldnt know that since you never studied or educated yourself
you watch news?
How many news I know about hate from Muslims towards Christianity.
again your kind would rather protect a rapist who prays than your own kids who hide in the closet as a gay man or woman
Gun shots around the world done by Muslims towards Christianity in Churches.
oh good lord....here we go i watch more news channels than i bet have in a year
heaven and hell doesnt exist. when we die we end our existence. TOTALY. there is nothing after death. we have only 1 life so dont waste time to pray something whad dont exist, and do some good for other people. we are here and now. everything on the world depends what we do. any god dont do anything
and dont get me going on politics or trump lady
so you know. in America itself, in an year bow many Gun shot happens because of religious hates.
who said I'm a trump supporter.
I don't support any politics. I only live for Christ.
How do you differentiate Haversian canal and Volkmann canal?
Holly Reply
These are differentiated based on location. Haversian canal are present right in the middle of the osteon. the Volkmann canals are located to the sides of Haversian canal and their blood vessels and nerve fibers invade deep into spongy bone in long bones.
thank you
What are coronal arteries?
The coronary arteries/veins are the group of arteries and veins that supplies the myocardium of the heart.
What is augment
Safia Reply
I don't know
Google works wonders at answering questions..
make greater or numerous
how to identify tissues cells under a microscope
Carla Reply
any advice on how to identify tissue cells under a microscope?
structural and function of the living part
it depends on the specific type of tissue (endothelium, connective etc..). are you asking specifically how to tell different tissues or structures of the tissues apart or how to be able to physically see them?

Get the best Anatomy & Physiology course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?