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The second subtest for sensory perception is gnosis    , which involves two tasks. The first task, known as stereognosis    , involves the naming of objects strictly on the basis of the somatosensory information that comes from manipulating them. The patient keeps their eyes closed and is given a common object, such as a coin, that they have to identify. The patient should be able to indicate the particular type of coin, such as a dime versus a penny, or a nickel versus a quarter, on the basis of the sensory cues involved. For example, the size, thickness, or weight of the coin may be an indication, or to differentiate the pairs of coins suggested here, the smooth or corrugated edge of the coin will correspond to the particular denomination. The second task, graphesthesia    , is to recognize numbers or letters written on the palm of the hand with a dull pointer, such as a pen cap.

Praxis and gnosis are related to the conscious perception and cortical processing of sensory information. Being able to transform verbal commands into a sequence of motor responses, or to manipulate and recognize a common object and associate it with a name for that object. Both subtests have language components because language function is integral to these functions. The relationship between the words that describe actions, or the nouns that represent objects, and the cerebral location of these concepts is suggested to be localized to particular cortical areas. Certain aphasias can be characterized by a deficit of verbs or nouns, known as V impairment or N impairment, or may be classified as V–N dissociation. Patients have difficulty using one type of word over the other. To describe what is happening in a photograph as part of the expressive language subtest, a patient will use active- or image-based language. The lack of one or the other of these components of language can relate to the ability to use verbs or nouns. Damage to the region at which the frontal and temporal lobes meet, including the region known as the insula, is associated with V impairment; damage to the middle and inferior temporal lobe is associated with N impairment.

Judgment and abstract reasoning

Planning and producing responses requires an ability to make sense of the world around us. Making judgments and reasoning in the abstract are necessary to produce movements as part of larger responses. For example, when your alarm goes off, do you hit the snooze button or jump out of bed? Is 10 extra minutes in bed worth the extra rush to get ready for your day? Will hitting the snooze button multiple times lead to feeling more rested or result in a panic as you run late? How you mentally process these questions can affect your whole day.

The prefrontal cortex is responsible for the functions responsible for planning and making decisions. In the mental status exam, the subtest that assesses judgment and reasoning is directed at three aspects of frontal lobe function. First, the examiner asks questions about problem solving, such as “If you see a house on fire, what would you do?” The patient is also asked to interpret common proverbs, such as “Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth.” Additionally, pairs of words are compared for similarities, such as apple and orange, or lamp and cabinet.

Questions & Answers

what is the relationship between Clinical officer general, unqualified professionals and traditional healers?
Purity Reply
is that how the microscopic anatomy is
Elizabeth Reply
to understand the structures of the body. to understand how the structures of the body work . To understand how the structures of the body work and support the functions of life.
Dora Reply
procedures that removes waste from body when kidneys dont function properly..
maribel Reply
Want to join
Ordeal
What is dialisis
Friday Reply
When kidney is not functioning properly than with the help of dialysis blood filtration is occur Or we can say that it is a process through which filtration of blood is done
sonugora
dialysis is a process of removing wastes, excess fluid ,impurities from the blood and to correct electrolytes imbalance such as sodium, potassium and calcium etc with the help of dialysis machine.when the kidney can't do their job.
Kishan
describe anatomical position
Getrude Reply
The erect position of the body with the face directed forward, the arms at the side, and the palms of the hands facing forward, used as a reference in describing the relation of body parts to one another
Jean
Somebody to explain for me the duties of specialist obstetrician
Irene
Definition of an anatomy
Oppong Reply
hy oppong wat course do u offer
Desmond
b pharmacy all subject complete notes
Sayed
the study of the body's structures scientifically
Dora
what is regional anatomy ?
Jharana Reply
regional anatomy - the study of anatomy based on regions or divisions of the body and emphasizing the relations between various structures (muscles and nerves and arteries etc.) in that region.
Noor
it's the scientific study of the body's structures in a particular region of the body, to study and understand how the body's structures in that region work together and the relations between them.
Dora
what is joint
ISHQ Reply
I want to learn English
Hussein
who are you?
carina
joining the academy
Noor
what is gross anatomy ?
Jharana Reply
what is pharynx
Kishan
membrane behind the nose
Oloruntoba
Gross anatomy is the study of anatomy at the visible or (macroscopic) level
Noor
how does blood gets into the heart
Kity
through the inferior and superior vena cava
Oloruntoba
it's the anatomy of complex body structures that can be seen without the aid of a microspe.
Dora
it is the study of large body structures that can be observed without the aid of a microscope
Purity
state factors that affect sterilization (10marks)
Bright
what facilitate an embryo?
DUFITUMUREMYI Reply
what is anatomy
Danish Reply
study of internal structure of living organism
Jharana
good
Sunil
study of body's structures scientifically.
Dora
is the study structure of body
Ayan
how can i join with u
udesh
risk for hemodialysis
Kishan
abcess
Koche
infection
Koche
what are the types of membranes
Kevin Reply
How prepare a assignment on musciskeleton
sonugora Reply
how does the heart function
Pricey Reply
what re the three layers of the skin
Pricey
endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm
Rohit
epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous
Rohit
epidermis, dermis and hypodermis
brian
the heart functions by electric impulse
brian
Ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
Che
what you guys mentioned are the layers of the heart
Koche
how does the heart get blood itself
Kity
by coronary circulation
Isaac
yeah the coronary artery supplies the heart muscle with oxygen and nutriente
Kevin

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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