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Dynamic, learner-centered art

Our unique approach to visuals is designed to emphasize only the components most important in any given illustration. The art style is particularly aimed at focusing student learning through a powerful blend of traditional depictions and instructional innovations.

Much of the art in this book consists of black line illustrations. The strongest line is used to highlight the most important structures, and shading is used to show dimension and shape. Color is used sparingly to highlight and clarify the primary anatomical or functional point of the illustration. This technique is intended to draw students’ attention to the critical learning point in the illustration, without distraction from excessive gradients, shadows, and highlights. Full color is used when the structure or process requires it (for example, muscle diagrams and cardiovascular system illustrations).

The pharynx

A color illustration of the pharynx.
By highlighting the most important portions of the illustration, the artwork helps students focus on the most important points, without overwhelming them.

Micrographs

Micrograph magnifications have been calculated based on the objective provided with the image. If a micrograph was recorded at 40×, and the image was magnified an additional 2×, we calculated the final magnification of the micrograph to be 80×.

Please note that, when viewing the textbook electronically, the micrograph magnification provided in the text does not take into account the size and magnification of the screen on your electronic device. There may be some variation.

Sebaceous glands

A color illustration of the pharynx.
These glands secrete oils that lubricate and protect the skin. LM × 400. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Learning resources

The following resources are (or will be) available in addition to main text:

  • PowerPoint slides: For each chapter, the illustrations are presented, one per slide, with their respective captions.
  • Pronunciation guide: A subset of the text’s key terms are presented with easy-to-follow phonetic transcriptions. For example, blastocyst is rendered as “blas'to-sist”

About our team

Senior contributing authors

J. Gordon Betts Tyler Junior College
Peter Desaix University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Eddie Johnson Central Oregon Community College
Jody E. Johnson Arapahoe Community College
Oksana Korol Aims Community College
Dean Kruse Portland Community College
Brandon Poe Springfield Technical Community College
James A. Wise Hampton University
Mark Womble Youngstown State University
Kelly A. Young California State University, Long Beach

Advisor

Robin J. Heyden

Contributing authors

Kim Aaronson Aquarius Institute; Triton College
Lopamudra Agarwal Augusta Technical College
Gary Allen Dalhousie University
Robert Allison McLennan Community College
Heather Armbruster Southern Union State Community College
Timothy Ballard University of North Carolina Wilmington
Matthew Barlow Eastern New Mexico University
William Blaker Furman University
Julie Bowers East Tennessee State University
Emily Bradshaw Florida Southern College
Nishi Bryska University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Susan Caley Opsal Illinois Valley Community College
Boyd Campbell Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and Health Sciences
Ann Caplea Walsh University
Marnie Chapman University of Alaska, Sitka
Barbara Christie-Pope Cornell College
Kenneth Crane Texarkana College
Maurice Culver Florida State College at Jacksonville
Heather Cushman Tacoma Community College
Noelle Cutter Molloy College
Lynnette Danzl-Tauer Rock Valley College
Jane Davis Aurora University
AnnMarie DelliPizzi Dominican College
Susan Dentel Washtenaw Community College
Pamela Dobbins Shelton State Community College
Patty Dolan Pacific Lutheran University
Sondra Dubowsky McLennan Community College
Peter Dukehart Three Rivers Community College
Ellen DuPré Central College
Elizabeth DuPriest Warner Pacific College
Pam Elf University of Minnesota
Sharon Ellerton Queensborough Community College
Carla Endres Utah State University - College of Eastern Utah: San Juan Campus
Myriam Feldman Lake Washington Institute of Technology; Cascadia Community College
Greg Fitch Avila University
Lynn Gargan Tarant County College
Michael Giangrande Oakland Community College
Chaya Gopalan St. Louis College of Pharmacy
Victor Greco Chattahoochee Technical College
Susanna Heinze Skagit Valley College
Ann Henninger Wartburg College
Dale Horeth Tidewater Community College
Michael Hortsch University of Michigan
Rosemary Hubbard Marymount University
Mark Hubley Prince George's Community College
Branko Jablanovic College of Lake County
Norman Johnson University of Massachusetts Amherst
Mark Jonasson North Arkansas College
Jeff Keyte College of Saint Mary
William Kleinelp Middlesex County College
Leigh Kleinert Grand Rapids Community College
Brenda Leady University of Toledo
John Lepri University of North Carolina, Greensboro
Sarah Leupen University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Lihua Liang Johns Hopkins University
Robert Mallet University of North Texas Health Science Center
Bruce Maring Daytona State College
Elisabeth Martin College of Lake County
Natalie Maxwell Carl Albert State College, Sallisaw
Julie May William Carey University
Debra McLaughlin University of Maryland University College
Nicholas Mitchell St. Bonaventure University
Shobhana Natarajan Brookhaven College
Phillip Nicotera St. Petersburg College
Mary Jane Niles University of San Francisco
Ikemefuna Nwosu Parkland College; Lake Land College
Betsy Ott Tyler Junior College
Ivan Paul John Wood Community College
Aaron Payette College of Southern Nevada
Scott Payne Kentucky Wesleyan College
Cameron Perkins South Georgia College
David Pfeiffer University of Alaska, Anchorage
Thomas Pilat Illinois Central College
Eileen Preston Tarrant County College
Mike Pyle Olivet Nazarene University
Robert Rawding Gannon University
Jason Schreer State University of New York at Potsdam
Laird Sheldahl Mt. Hood Community College
Brian Shmaefsky Lone Star College System
Douglas Sizemore Bevill State Community College
Susan Spencer Mount Hood Community College
Cynthia Standley University of Arizona
Robert Sullivan Marist College
Eric Sun Middle Georgia State College
Tom Swenson Ithaca College
Kathleen Tallman Azusa Pacific University
Rohinton Tarapore University of Pennsylvania
Elizabeth Tattersall Western Nevada College
Mark Thomas University of Northern Colorado
Janis Thompson Lorain County Community College
Rita Thrasher Pensacola State College
David Van Wylen St. Olaf College
Lynn Wandrey Mott Community College
Margaret Weck St. Louis College of Pharmacy
Kathleen Weiss George Fox University
Neil Westergaard Williston State College
David Wortham West Georgia Technical College
Umesh Yadav University of Texas Medical Branch
Tony Yates Oklahoma Baptist University
Justin York Glendale Community College
Cheri Zao North Idaho College
Elena Zoubina Bridgewater State University; Massasoit Community College
Shobhana Natarajan Alcon Laboratories, Inc.

Special thanks

OpenStax wishes to thank the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School for the use of their extensive micrograph collection. Many of the UM micrographs that appear in Anatomy and Physiology are interactive WebScopes, which students can explore by zooming in and out.

We also wish to thank the Open Learning Initiative at Carnegie Mellon University, with whom we shared and exchanged resources during the development of Anatomy and Physiology .

Questions & Answers

master gland Kon si h
kajal Reply
Pituitary gland
KUNDAN
pituitary gland because it give harmonies and control other gland
ABDULLAH
glands often secrete hormones which play an important role in maintaining homeostasis.
KUNDAN
pituitary gland
Aftab
pituitary gland is master gland because it present in biran and secrtehormones and play other gland of human body and function its gland so that also called master gland.
ABDULLAH
pituitary glandis the master gland of our body
Nadeem
how do you study for A&P? lab and lecture?
Aubrey Reply
When one is suffering from motion sickness what area of the brain may trigger emesis?
amy Reply
that is the sign of stroke. if the patient have a stroke. the left side of body is weakness, the affected right of cerebrum but if right side of the body is weakness surely in left side!
Larry
thank you sooo much bro
Fatima Reply
helloo
Sentamu
Fatima hw a u
Sentamu
hii
Shubham
any one elaborate fr me foramens of the skull and features which they transmit
Sentamu
icant undrestand plz
zahruuzh Reply
try to read I hop you will understand
state and explain 20 radiology uses
ILYAS Reply
what are chemicals in anatomy and physiology?
Mike Reply
what can I do to find it easy for me in anatomy and physiology course
Mike
study up on the basics of the periodic chart, learn bones and muscles attachments, and learn muscles. Those take the longest to memorize. After that it should be a little easier.
Toni
what are the two types of body cells
Jennifer Reply
what is malnutrition
Claire
malnutrition refers to faulty nutrition resulting from malabsorption,poor diet or overeating. Sometimes too these food do not contain all the six food nutrients in their right proportion.
Yakubu
thank you
Claire
welcome
Yakubu
Will u be malnourished?
Baigwa
gud
Budumari
What's the difference between radiology and radiology
gabriel
Nothing! Radiology it means the study or using of radiation in medical science it can be 1.diagnose or treatment diagnosed radiology! x- ray. ultrasound. ct-scan. mammogram. MRI. 2. treatmen- radiation oncology, like Cobalt 60. and nuclear medicine
Larry
what is X-ray?
Nissar
X-ray is type of light that make it possible to see inside any object. as human body
KUNDAN
How the nervous system develops
ayiesher Reply
From the cells at the back of an embryo
Mma
breifly explain anatomy of thorax
Hadiza Reply
How many region the rib is divided
Konneh
how many bon of human being
Nura
206
John
how to study for the skeletal system
ryaisha
and anatomy
ryaisha
I really need sources immediately
ryaisha
I printed out all the different bones. Put them in the see through protective sheaths and got dry erase markers. I could right on them and erase to help me learn to spell the names of markings and bones.
Toni
Or go to a book store, Barnes and Noble(doesn't have to be this) and they have coloring books for anatomy. $16. Really helpful.
Toni
okay thanks and are what study tools you use to study the materials and get a better understanding
ryaisha
*what are
ryaisha
hiii
Roopa
I prefer diagrams, pictures that lay out each step with the information in each step. For Example: how action potential creates muscles to move. A pictured diagram gives me a better understanding of how each piece plays a role in each step of the process.
Toni
Also for basics, such as memorizing vocab. Flash cards are great. Don't become discouraged if you don't get them all right the first times through. The more you go through them, your brain will remember pieces of information from each and help you to pull out the information 😉
Toni
okay thanks
ryaisha
what is the functions of the lips in human
Momboi Reply
could I say sensation?
Sovilace
kissing
Obrian
for protection
Omar
Lips assist in speech and eating
Cindy
Too many easy questions. Which bones are the axial and appendicular? What are the abbreviations for TEE, TTE, AED, A-Mode, B-Mode, and LTH? What is the difference between hypothalamus and thalamus? Where is the parathyroid located? How many True Ribs do we have?
Sovilace Reply
Transesophageal echocardiography Transthoracic Echocardiography automated external defibrillator brightnees mode Los Hermanos Taverna
Inam
what is anatomy
okello Reply
anatomy is scientific study of body structures and how they relate to each other
Skeater
Are there other functions of the nucleolus apart from synthesis of RNA and formation of ribosomes
Peninah Reply
plays a role in cell response to stress
airiz
what is angle of auscultation
Bryan Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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