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Conservation of bicarbonate in the kidney

This diagram depicts a cross section of the left wall of a kidney proximal tubule. The wall is composed of two block-shaped cells arranged vertically one on top of each other. The lumen of the proximal tubule is to the left of the two cells. Yellow-colored urine is flowing through the lumen. There is a small strip of blue interstitial fluid to the right of the two cells. To the right of the interstitial fluid is a cross section of a blood vessel. A loop of chemical reactions is occurring in the diagram. Within the lumen of the proximal tubule, HCO three minus is combining with an H plus ion that enters the lumen from a proximal tubule cell. This reaction forms H two CO three. H two CO three then breaks into H two O and CO two, a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. The CO two then moves from the lumen of the proximal tubule into one of the proximal tubule cells. There, the reaction runs in reverse, with CO two combining with H two O to form H two CO three. The H two CO three then splits into H plus and HCO three minus. The H plus moves into the lumen, reinitiating the first step of the loop. The HCO three minus leaves the proximal tubule cell and enters the blood stream.
Tubular cells are not permeable to bicarbonate; thus, bicarbonate is conserved rather than reabsorbed. Steps 1 and 2 of bicarbonate conservation are indicated.

It is also possible that salts in the filtrate, such as sulfates, phosphates, or ammonia, will capture hydrogen ions. If this occurs, the hydrogen ions will not be available to combine with bicarbonate ions and produce CO 2 . In such cases, bicarbonate ions are not conserved from the filtrate to the blood, which will also contribute to a pH imbalance and acidosis.

The hydrogen ions also compete with potassium to exchange with sodium in the renal tubules. If more potassium is present than normal, potassium, rather than the hydrogen ions, will be exchanged, and increased potassium enters the filtrate. When this occurs, fewer hydrogen ions in the filtrate participate in the conversion of bicarbonate into CO 2 and less bicarbonate is conserved. If there is less potassium, more hydrogen ions enter the filtrate to be exchanged with sodium and more bicarbonate is conserved.

Chloride ions are important in neutralizing positive ion charges in the body. If chloride is lost, the body uses bicarbonate ions in place of the lost chloride ions. Thus, lost chloride results in an increased reabsorption of bicarbonate by the renal system.

Disorders of the…

Acid-base balance: ketoacidosis

Diabetic acidosis, or ketoacidosis, occurs most frequently in people with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. When certain tissues in the body cannot get adequate amounts of glucose, they depend on the breakdown of fatty acids for energy. When acetyl groups break off the fatty acid chains, the acetyl groups then non-enzymatically combine to form ketone bodies, acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone, all of which increase the acidity of the blood. In this condition, the brain isn’t supplied with enough of its fuel—glucose—to produce all of the ATP it requires to function.

Ketoacidosis can be severe and, if not detected and treated properly, can lead to diabetic coma, which can be fatal. A common early symptom of ketoacidosis is deep, rapid breathing as the body attempts to drive off CO 2 and compensate for the acidosis. Another common symptom is fruity-smelling breath, due to the exhalation of acetone. Other symptoms include dry skin and mouth, a flushed face, nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Treatment for diabetic coma is ingestion or injection of sugar; its prevention is the proper daily administration of insulin.

A person who is diabetic and uses insulin can initiate ketoacidosis if a dose of insulin is missed. Among people with type 2 diabetes, those of Hispanic and African-American descent are more likely to go into ketoacidosis than those of other ethnic backgrounds, although the reason for this is unknown.

Chapter review

A variety of buffering systems exist in the body that helps maintain the pH of the blood and other fluids within a narrow range—between pH 7.35 and 7.45. A buffer is a substance that prevents a radical change in fluid pH by absorbing excess hydrogen or hydroxyl ions. Most commonly, the substance that absorbs the ion is either a weak acid, which takes up a hydroxyl ion (OH - ), or a weak base, which takes up a hydrogen ion (H + ). Several substances serve as buffers in the body, including cell and plasma proteins, hemoglobin, phosphates, bicarbonate ions, and carbonic acid. The bicarbonate buffer is the primary buffering system of the IF surrounding the cells in tissues throughout the body. The respiratory and renal systems also play major roles in acid-base homeostasis by removing CO 2 and hydrogen ions, respectively, from the body.

Questions & Answers

blood is unique it is the only flueid tissue in the body
yeh
Ayoub
this is fascinating
mery
for real
Musa
what is blood
sujon Reply
lol. the red substance in your body. that circulates food nutrients and oxygen
Nii
Blood is composed of plasma and formed elements. The plasma is about 55% of blood and is about 80-90% water usually. The other 20-10% accounts for solutes such as ions, nutrients, gases, and hormones.
Carmelo
Blood is a fluid type of connective tissue and it's formed elements (cells) include RBC, WBC, and plalets.
Carmelo
what is sasamoid bone?
hafeez Reply
how many types of bone on the base of shape
hafeez
5
Husna
i want join the conversation
juwar Reply
Alright
Haya
feel free to do so
Vida
where are you from ?
Haya
hi what's up
Mar
well hello
emad
Im from kashmir,but I'm studying in punjab
Aabid
Hello
Aabid
I'm studying pharmacy at JUST University in jordan
emad
so am i emad 😅
shereen
afg
Ayoub
I am Javed Ali
Javedali
hello i am hafeez from gilgit
hafeez
explain the mechanism(release and control) of hormonal interplay for fluid and electrolyte.
Cassie Reply
There are three main ways in which hormones may be released. Humoral stimulus - occurs when their is an inbalance in electrolytes in the body. Neural stimulus - occurs when autonomic nerve fibers stimulate glands to release hormones.
Carmelo
Hormonal stimulus - occurs when a hormone causes another hormone to be released from another gland.
Carmelo
what are the main pumps found in the cell membrane
pauline Reply
calcium
Schmidt
sodium potassium pump
Husna
Differences between ligaments and catilage
joy Reply
differences between catilage and ligaments
joy
Both are different types of connective tissues. Second difference is that cartilage contains chondroblasts rather than fibroblasts. Their is also slight differences on their extracrullar matrix. For ex, cartilages tend to contain more collagen than tendons and ligaments.
Carmelo
Both types of connective tissue also function differently. Ligaments connect bone to bone, while cartilage have a variety of function like cushioning bones and giving structural support like on the nose and ears.
Carmelo
explain the causes of the refractory period of a nerve fiber
Sophia Reply
Refractory period immediately following stimulation during which a nerve or muscle is unresponsive to further stimulation. Brief pause in stimulus or excitation.
Nii
To add on, the brief pause is produced because of the event of establishing a resting membrane potential that needs to be produced before depolarization (another action potential) can occur again.
Carmelo
The refractory period also gives a chance for neurotransmitters to be replenished on the axon terminal.
Carmelo
what is hypoxia
Akas Reply
I guess it's low supply the oxygen to the tissues
famuyiwa
yup
Natalie
A condition in which tissues (especially the blood) are deprived of an adequate supply of oxygen
Panthera
hanifa pia uko hapa
Panthera
Hypoxia is the lack of oxygen concentration in the blood. Therefore, tissues will receive a low concentration of oxygen. Usually our bodies respond to Hypoxia by stimulating erythropoiesis in red bone marrow.
Carmelo
hypoxia is the lack of oxygen in blood absolutely.
hafeez
hypoxia: is a condition in wich the concentration of oxygen goes down in tissue or all over the body but the low concentration of oxygen in blood is called hypoxiemia.
Ayoub
where is present Glenoid Cavity ?
A- Reply
what is the muscular tissue
Md Reply
muscular tissue is a type of tissue that provide to help in cotraction to aur body.
A-
What's the difference in epithelial, connective, muscular and muscle tissue
Gifty
and it's similarities
Gifty
what is limb bone
Akshu Reply
this are bone attaching or joining to the axial bone.axial bone including skull,vertebrate and ribcage
Eliasi
how many bones make up the skull?
Matthew
22 bones
Husna
22bones
Bhanu
where is present Glenoid cavity ?
A-
how many bone in skull
Md
almost there are 8 bones in skull
hafeez
Explain the stages of mitosis and cell division
Bella Reply
Bella, this is a very long process to detail by text. However, to keep it brief, mitosis has four phases in order: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase which sometimes followed by cytokinesis. Note that some cells do not always do the cytokinesis phase.
Carmelo
As a result, some of the cells in the body are multinuclear (osteoclasts for ex).
Carmelo
explain further
Nana
difference between mitosis and meosis
Nana
systems of human body
Udezue Reply
define lymphatic system And give the composition of lymphatic fluid
sakshi Reply
the network of vessels through which lymphatic drains From the tissue into blood.lymph contain variety of substance like salts, glucose, proteins and fatsand water, white blood cells
Bhanu
yeah
Hassan

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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